Clean Air Act
(Chapter 45, Section 25)
Clean Air (Standards) Regulations
Rg 1
REVISED EDITION 1990
(25th March 1992)
[15th January 1972]
Citation
1.  These Regulations may be cited as the Clean Air (Standards) Regulations.
Dark smoke
2.—(1)  For the purposes of section 9 of the Act, “dark smoke” includes smoke of any colour whatsoever which appears to the Director or any authorised officer —
(a)to be as dark as or darker than shade No. 2 on a chart of the type known as the Ringelmann Chart;
(b)when observed or recorded with such instrument or device as the Director may approve, to be as dark as or darker than shade No. 2 on the Ringelmann Chart; or
(c)to be of such opacity as to cause obscuration to a degree equivalent to smoke as dark as or darker than shade No. 2 on the Ringelmann Chart.
(2)  Section 9 of the Act shall not apply to the emission of dark smoke from a chimney for less than 5 minutes in any period of one hour:
Provided that the total number of emissions from that chimney shall not exceed 3 times in any one day.
Methods of smoke indication
3.  The occupier of any trade or industrial premises in or on which any industrial plant or fuel burning equipment is situated shall, if so required by the Director, provide a means to the satisfaction of the Director whereby any person in charge of such plant or equipment may at all times readily ascertain without leaving the boiler room, furnace room, or control room, whether or not smoke is discharging from any chimney on such premises. Such means may include one or more of the following:
(a)a window or other opening through which an unobstructed view of the top of the chimney may be obtained from the boiler room, furnace room or control room;
(b)a mirror so placed as to reflect the top of the chimney, which reflection shall be visible from the boiler room, furnace room or control room;
(c)a smoke density indicator and alarm installed so as to indicate adequately in the boiler room, furnace room or control room the density of smoke being discharged;
(d)a closed circuit television installation with the receiver located in the boiler room, furnace room or control room;
(e)any device which may be approved by the Director.
Standards of concentration of air impurities
4.—(1)  The prescribed standards of concentration of air impurities in the conduct of any trade, industry or process or the operation of any fuel burning equipment or industrial plant shall be as set out in this regulation.
(2)  In any trade, industry, process, fuel burning equipment or industrial plant (other than plant or equipment used for the heating of metals) in the operation of which dust or other solid particles are emitted, the concentration at any point of smoke, soot, dust, ash (including fly-ash), cinders, cement, lime, alumina, grit or other solid particles of any kind shall be such that the total mass of such solid particles before admixture with air, smoke or other gases does not exceed 0.20 gramme in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases.
(3)  In any trade, industry, process, industrial plant or fuel burning equipment used for the heating of metals (other than cold blast foundry cupolas) the concentration at any point of any solid particles shall be such that the total mass of such solid particles before admixture with air, smoke or other gases does not exceed 0.20 gramme in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases.
(4)  In any trade, industry or process —
(a)other than combustion processes and plant for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, in the operation of which sulphuric acid mist or sulphur trioxide is emitted, the concentration at any point of sulphuric acid mist or sulphur trioxide or both after completion of an operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed the equivalent of 0.10 gramme of sulphur trioxide in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(b)in which sulphuric acid is manufactured, the concentration at any point of acid gases after completion of manufacture and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed the equivalent of 3.0 grammes of sulphur trioxide in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases; and the effluent gases when discharged into the general atmosphere shall be free from persistent mist;
(c)in the operation of which flourine, hydroflouric acid or inorganic flourine compounds are emitted from any source, the concentration at any point of flourine, hydroflouric acid or any inorganic flourine compounds after completion of any operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed the equivalent of 0.10 gramme of hydroflouric acid in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(d)in the operation of which hydrogen chloride is emitted from any source, the concentration at any point of hydrogen chloride after completion of an operation and before admixture with air, smoke and other gases shall not exceed 0.20 gramme of hydrogen chloride in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(e)in the operation of which chlorine gas is emitted from any source, the concentration at any point of chlorine gas after completion of an operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases shall not exceed 0.10 gramme of chlorine in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(f)in the operation of which hydrogen sulphide gas is emitted from any source, the concentration at any point of hydrogen sulphide gas after completion of any operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed 5 parts per million volume for volume;
(g)in which the manufacture of nitric acid is carried out, the total acidity at any point of nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen after completion of manufacture and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed the equivalent of 2.0 grammes of nitrogen dioxide in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(h)other than those referred to in sub-paragraph (g) in which nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen are emitted, the total acidity at any point of nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen after completion of operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall not exceed the equivalent of 1.0 gramme of nitrogen dioxide in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(i)in the operation of which copper, lead, arsenic, or any compound thereof is emitted, the concentration at any point of copper, lead, arsenic, or any of their compounds after completion of an operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall be such that the total mass of these elements or their compounds expressed as the element in each case does not exceed 0.02 gramme in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(j)in the operation of which antimony, cadmium, mercury or any compound thereof is emitted, the concentration at any point of antimony, cadmium, mercury or any of their compounds after completion of an operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases, shall be such that the total mass of these elements or their compounds expressed as the element in each case does not exceed 0.01 gramme in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases;
(k)in the operation of which carbon monoxide gas is emitted from any source, the concentration at any point of carbon monoxide gas after completion of any operation and before admixture with air, smoke or other gases shall not exceed 1.0 gramme of carbon monoxide in each normal cubic metre of effluent gases.
(5)  In this regulation “normal cubic metre” means that amount of gas when dry occupies a cubic metre at a temperature of 0 degree Centigrade and at an absolute pressure of 760 millimetres of mercury.
Testing procedures
5.—(1)  For the purposes of section 10 of the Act, any point for measuring the concentration of air impurities shall be such point as may be determined in any particular case by the Director or any authorised officer.
(2)  Such point may be situated at the fixed point of emission of the air impurities, or may be situated in any flue, duct or chimney located in the premises at some place other than the final point of emission of the air impurities.
(3)  An occupier of any trade or industrial premises shall carry out such tests with respect to the emission of air impurities from and the consumption of fuel on such premises as may be required by the Director, and shall keep a register of all such tests showing the date of each test, the nature of each test and the results obtained. The register shall be available for inspection by the Director or any authorised officer at all reasonable hours.
(4)  The results of all tests conducted on boilers, furnaces and incinerators shall be expressed on the basis of flue gas containing 12% by volume of carbon dioxide.
(5)  An occupier of any premises, for the purpose of enabling the Director or any authorised officer to exercise his powers under the Act, shall, at all reasonable times and as often as the Director or authorised officer considers necessary, provide the Director or authorised officer with access to such premises and to any part thereof and to any control equipment, fuel burning equipment, industrial plant or chimney on such premises. The occupier shall also provide the Director or the authorised officer with such assistance and facilities (including the means of making examinations, inspections and tests at any point) as may reasonably be required by the Director or authorised officer.
(6)  The assistance and facilities provided under paragraph (5) shall include, in respect of each chimney serving the premises, provision of an inspection opening or openings, and means of safe and adequate access thereto, for the taking of representative samples of the discharge from the chimney.
(7)  In this regulation —
“boiler” means any device in which for any purpose water or other liquid is heated by any combustible material;
“furnace” means any chamber, other than a boiler in which combustion takes place;
“incinerator” means any structure or part of a structure used in any trade, industry or process to dispose of combustible material by burning.
Offences
6.  Any person who contravenes or fails to comply with these Regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5,000, and if the offence is a continuing one, to a further fine of $200 for every day during which the offence continues after conviction.