No. S 314
Merchant Shipping Act
(Chapter 179)
Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) (Amendment) Regulations 2002
In exercise of the powers conferred by section 100 of the Merchant Shipping Act, the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, with the approval of the Minister for Transport, hereby makes the following Regulations:
Citation and commencement
1.  These Regulations may be cited as the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) (Amendment) Regulations 2002 and shall come into operation on 1st July 2002.
Amendment of Regulation 3-4 of Chapter II-1
2.  The Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Regulations (Rg 11) (referred to in these Regulations as the principal Regulations) are amended by deleting Regulation 3-4 of Chapter II-1 and substituting the following Regulation:
Regulation 3-4
Emergency towing arrangements on tankers
(a)Emergency towing arrangements shall be fitted at both ends on board every tanker of not less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight.
(b)For tankers constructed on or after 1st July 2002:
(i)the arrangements shall, at all times, be capable of rapid deployment in the absence of main power on the ship to be towed and easy connection to the towing ship. At least one of the emergency towing arrangements shall be pre-rigged ready for rapid deployment; and
(ii)emergency towing arrangements at both ends shall be of adequate strength taking into account the size and deadweight of the ship, and the expected forces during bad weather conditions. The design and construction and prototype testing of emergency towing arrangements shall be approved by the Director, based on the Guidelines developed by the Organization.
(c)For tankers constructed before 1st July 2002, the design and construction of emergency towing arrangements shall be approved by the Director, based on the Guidelines developed by the Organization.1
1  Refer to the Guidelines on emergency towing arrangements for tankers adopted by the Marine Safety Committee by resolution MSC.35 (63), as may be amended.”.
New Regulation 3-5 of Chapter II-1
3.  The principal Regulations are amended by inserting, immediately after Regulation 3-4 of Chapter II-1, the following Regulation:
Regulation 3-5
New installation of materials containing asbestos
(a)This Regulation shall apply to materials used for the structure, machinery, electrical installations and equipment covered by the present Convention.
(b)For all ships, new installation of materials which contain asbestos shall be prohibited except for:
(i)vanes used in rotary vane compressors and rotary vane vacuum pumps;
(ii)watertight joints and linings used for the circulation of fluids when, at high temperature (in excess of 350ºC) or pressure (in excess of 7 x 106 Pa), there is a risk of fire, corrosion or toxicity; and
(iii)supple and flexible thermal insulation assemblies used for temperatures above 1,000ºC.”.
Amendment of Regulation 14 of Chapter II-1
4.  Regulation 14 of Chapter II-1 of the principal Regulations is amended by deleting paragraph (c) and substituting the following paragraph:
(c)Testing main compartments by filling them with water is not compulsory. When testing by filling with water is not carried out, a hose test shall be carried out where practicable. This test shall be carried out in the most advanced stage of the fitting out of the ship. Where a hose test is not practicable because of possible damage to machinery, electrical equipment insulation or outfitting items, it may be replaced by a careful visual examination of welded connections, supported where deemed necessary by means such as a dye penetrant test or an ultrasonic leak test or an equivalent test. In any case a thorough inspection of the watertight bulkheads shall be carried out.”.
Amendment of Regulation 43 of Chapter II-1
5.  Regulation 43 of Chapter II-1 of the principal Regulations is amended —
(a)by deleting the word “and” in sub-paragraph (5) of paragraph (b)(ii); and
(b)by deleting the full-stop at the end of sub-paragraph (6) of paragraph (b)(ii) and substituting the word “and”, and by inserting immediately thereafter the following sub-paragraph:
(7)  in all cargo pump-rooms of tankers constructed on or after 1st July 2002.”.
Deletion and substitution of Chapter II-2
6.  Chapter II-2 of the principal Regulations is deleted and the following Chapter substituted therefor:
CHAPTER II-2
CONSTRUCTION — FIRE PROTECTION,
FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINCTION
PART A — GENERAL
Regulation 1
Application
Application
(a)
(i)Unless expressly provided otherwise, this Chapter shall apply to ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002.
(ii)For the purpose of this Chapter:
(1)the expression “ships constructed” means ships the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction;
(2)the expression “all ships” means ships, irrespective of type, constructed before, on or after 1st July 2002; and
(3)a cargo ship, whenever built, which is converted to a passenger ship shall be treated as a passenger ship constructed on the date on which such a conversion commences.
(iii)For the purpose of this Chapter, the expression a “similar stage of construction” means the stage at which:
(1)construction identifiable with a specific ship begins; and
(2)assembly of that ship has commenced comprising at least 50 tonnes or one per cent of the estimated mass of all structural material, whichever is less.
Applicable requirements to existing ships
(b)
(i)Unless expressly provided otherwise, ships constructed before 1st July 2002 shall comply with the requirements which are applicable under this Chapter in force immediately before that date.
(ii)Ships constructed before 1st July 2002 shall also comply with:
(1)paragraphs (c), (f)(v) and (f)(vii) as appropriate;
(2)paragraphs (c)(iv) (2) to (5) and (d)(iii) of Regulation 13 and Part E, except paragraphs (c)(ii) (2) and (3) of Regulation 16 thereof, as appropriate, not later than the date of the first survey after 1st July 2002;
(3)paragraphs (d)(i) (3) and (f)(iv) of Regulation 10 for new installations only; and
(4)paragraphs (e)(vi) of Regulation 10 not later than 1st October 2005 for passenger ships of 2,000 tons and above.
Repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting
(c)
(i)All ships which undergo repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting related thereto shall continue to comply with at least the requirements previously applicable to these ships. Such ships, if constructed before 1st July 2002, shall, as a rule, comply with the requirements for ships constructed on or after that date to at least the same extent as they did before undergoing such repairs, alterations, modifications or outfitting.
(ii)Repairs, alterations and modifications which substantially alter the dimensions of a ship or the passenger accommodation spaces, or substantially increase a ship’s service life and outfitting related thereto shall meet the requirements for ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002 in so far as the Director deems reasonable and practicable.
Exemptions
(d)
(i)The Director may, if he considers that the sheltered nature and conditions of the voyage are such as to render the application of any specific requirements of this Chapter unreasonable or unnecessary, exempt2 from those requirements individual ships or classes of ships entitled to fly the flag of its State, provided that such ships, which, in the course of their voyage, do not sail at distances of more than 20 miles from the nearest land.
2  Refer to port State concurrence with SOLAS exemptions (MSC/Circ.606).
(ii)In the case of passenger ships which are employed in special trades for the carriage of large numbers of special trade passengers, such as the pilgrim trade, the Director, if satisfied that it is impracticable to enforce compliance with the requirements of this Chapter, may exempt such ships from those requirements, provided that they comply fully with the provisions of:
(1)the rules annexed to the Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement, 1971; and
(2)the rules annexed to the Protocol on Space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973.
Applicable requirements depending on ship type
(e)Unless expressly provided otherwise:
(i)requirements not referring to a specific ship type shall apply to ships of all types; and
(ii)requirements referring to “tankers” shall apply to tankers subject to the requirements specified in paragraph (f) below.
Application of requirements for tankers
(f)
(i)Requirements for tankers in this Chapter shall apply to tankers carrying crude oil or petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60ºC (closed cup test), as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus, and a Reid vapour pressure which is below the atmospheric pressure or other liquid products having a similar fire hazard.
(ii)Where liquid cargoes other than those referred to in paragraph (f)(i) or liquefied gases which introduce additional fire hazards are intended to be carried, additional safety measures shall be required, having due regard to the provisions of the International Bulk Chemical Code, as defined in Regulation 8(a) of Chapter VII, the Bulk Chemical Code, the International Gas Carrier Code, as defined in Regulation 11(a) of Chapter VII, and the Gas Carrier Code, as appropriate.
(1)A liquid cargo with a flashpoint of less than 60ºC for which a regular foam fire-fighting system complying with the Fire Safety Systems Code is not effective, is considered to be a cargo introducing additional fire hazards in this context. The following additional measures are required:
(A)the foam shall be of alcohol resistant type;
(B)the type of foam concentrates for use in chemical tankers shall be to the satisfaction of the Director taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization;3 and
3  Refer to the Guidelines for performance and testing criteria and surveys of expansion foam concentrates for fire-extinguishing systems for chemical tankers (MSC/Circ.799).
(C)the capacity and application rates of the foam extinguishing system shall comply with Chapter 11 of the International Bulk Chemical Code, except that lower application rates may be accepted based on performance tests. For tankers fitted with inert gas systems, a quantity of foam concentrate sufficient for 20 min of foam generation may be accepted.4
4  Refer to the Information on flashpoint and recommended fire-fighting media for chemicals to which neither the IBC nor BCH Codes apply (MSC/Circ.553).
(2)For the purpose of this Regulation, a liquid cargo with a vapour pressure greater than 1.013 bar absolute at 37.8°C is considered to be a cargo introducing additional fire hazards. Ships carrying such substances shall comply with paragraph 15.14 of the International Bulk Chemical Code. When ships operate in restricted areas and at restricted times, the Director concerned may agree to waive the requirements for refrigeration systems in accordance with paragraph 15.14.3 of the International Bulk Chemical Code.
(iii)Liquid cargoes with a flashpoint exceeding 60ºC other than oil products or liquid cargoes subject to the requirements of the International Bulk Chemical Code are considered to constitute a low fire risk, not requiring the protection of a fixed foam extinguishing system.
(iv)Tankers carrying petroleum products with a flashpoint exceeding 60ºC (closed cup test), as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus, shall comply with the requirements provided in paragraphs (b)(i) (4) (D) and (j)(ii) (3) of Regulation 10 and the requirements for cargo ships other than tankers, except that, in lieu of the fixed fire-extinguishing system required in paragraph (g) of Regulation 10, they shall be fitted with a fixed deck foam system which shall comply with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(v)Combination carriers constructed before, on or after 1st July 2002 shall not carry cargoes other than oil unless all cargo spaces are empty of oil and gas-freed or unless the arrangements provided in each case have been approved by the Director taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization.5
5  Refer to the Guidelines for inert gas systems (MSC/Circ.353), as amended by MSC/Circ.387.
(vi)Chemical tankers and gas carriers shall comply with the requirements for tankers, except where alternative and supplementary arrangements are provided to the satisfaction of the Director, having due regard to the provisions of the International Bulk Chemical Code and the International Gas Carrier Code, as appropriate.
(vii)The requirements of paragraphs (e)(x) (1) (A) and (D) of Regulations 4, and a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon gases shall be fitted on all tankers constructed before 1st July 2002 by the date of the first scheduled dry-docking after 1st July 2002, but not later than 1st July 2005. Sampling points or detector heads shall be located in suitable positions in order that potentially dangerous leakages are readily detected. When the hydrocarbon gas concentration reaches a pre-set level which shall not be higher than 10% of the lower flammable limit, a continuous audible and visual alarm signal shall be automatically effected in the pump-room and cargo control room to alert personnel to the potential hazard. However, exising monitoring systems already fitted having a pre-set level not greater than 30% of the lower flammable limit may be accepted.
Regulation 2
Fire safety objectives and functional requirements
Fire safety objectives
(a)
(i)The fire safety objectives of this Chapter are to:
(1)prevent the occurrence of fire and explosion;
(2)reduce the risk to life caused by fire;
(3)reduce the risk of damage caused by fire to the ship, its cargo and the environment;
(4)contain, control and suppress fire and explosion in the compartment of origin; and
(5)provide adequate and readily accessible means of escape for passengers and crew.
Functional requirements
(b)
(i)In order to achieve the fire safety objectives set out in paragraph (a) above, the following functional requirements are embodied in the Regulations of this Chapter as appropriate:
(1)division of the ship into main vertical and horizontal zones by thermal and structural boundaries;
(2)separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries;
(3)restricted use of combustible materials;
(4)detection of any fire in the zone of origin;
(5)containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin;
(6)protection of means of escape and access for fire-fighting;
(7)ready availability of fire-extinguishing appliances; and
(8)minimization of possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour.
Achievement of the fire safety objectives
(c)The fire safety objectives set out in paragraph (a) above shall be achieved by ensuring compliance with the prescriptive requirements specified in Parts B, C, D, E or G, or by alternative design and arrangements which comply with Part F. A ship shall be considered to meet the functional requirements set out in paragraph (b) and to achieve the fire safety objectives set out in paragraph (a) when either:
(i)the ship’s designs and arrangements, as a whole, complies with the relevant prescriptive requirements in Parts B, C, D, E or G;
(ii)the ship’s designs and arrangements, as a whole, have been reviewed and approved in accordance with Part F; or
(iii)Part(s) of the ship’s designs and arrangements have been reviewed and approved in accordance with Part F and the remaining parts of the ship comply with the relevant prescriptive requirements in Parts B, C, D, E or G.
Regulation 3
Definitions
  For the purpose of this Chapter, unless expressly provided otherwise, the following definitions shall apply:
(a)“Accommodation spaces” are those spaces used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, game and hobby rooms, barber shops, pantries containing no cooking appliances and similar spaces;
(b)““A” class divisions” are those divisions formed by bulkheads and decks which comply with the following criteria:
(i)they are constructed of steel or other equivalent material;
(ii)they are suitably stiffened;
(iii)they are insulated with approved non-combustible materials such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 140ºC above the original temperature, nor will the temperature, at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180ºC above the original temperature, within the time listed below:
 
class “A-60”
 
60 min
 
class “A-30”
 
30 min
 
class “A-15”
 
15 min
 
class “A-0”
 
0 min;
(iv)they are constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of smoke and flame to the end of the one-hour standard fire test; and
(v)the Director has required a test of a prototype bulkhead or deck in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code to ensure that it meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise.
(c)“Atriums” are public spaces within a single main vertical zone spanning three or more open decks.
(d)““B” class divisions” are those divisions formed by bulkheads, decks, ceilings or linings which comply with the following criteria:
(i)they are constructed of approved non-combustible materials and all materials used in the construction and erection of “B” class divisions are non-combustible, with the exception that combustible veneers may be permitted provided they meet other appropriate requirements of this Chapter;
(ii)they have an insulation value such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 140ºC above the original temperature, nor will the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 225ºC above the original temperature, within the time listed below:
 
class “B-15”
 
15 min
 
class “B-0”
 
0 min;
(iii)they are constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of flame to the end of the first half hour of the standard fire test; and
(iv)the Director has required a test of a prototype division in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code to ensure that it meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise.
(e)“Bulkhead deck” is the uppermost deck up to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried.
(f)“Cargo area” is that part of the ship that contains cargo holds, cargo tanks, slop tanks and cargo pump-rooms including pump-rooms, cofferdams, ballast and void spaces adjacent to cargo tanks and also deck areas throughout the entire length and breadth of the part of the ship over the abovementioned spaces.
(g)“Cargo ship” is a ship as defined in Regulation 2 of Chapter I.
(h)“Cargo spaces” are spaces used for cargo, cargo oil tanks, tanks for other liquid cargo and trunks to such spaces.
(i)“Central control station” is a control station in which the following control and indicator functions are centralized:
(i)fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems;
(ii)automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems;
(iii)fire door indicator panels;
(iv)fire door closure;
(v)watertight door indicator panels;
(vi)watertight door closures;
(vii)ventilation fans;
(viii)general/fire alarms;
(ix)communication systems including telephones; and
(x)microphones to public address systems.
(j)““C” class divisions” are divisions constructed of approved non-combustible materials. They need meet neither requirements relative to the passage of smoke and flame nor limitations relative to the temperature rise. Combustible veneers are permitted provided they meet the requirements of this Chapter.
(k)“Chemical tanker” is a cargo ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquid product of a flammable nature listed in Chapter 17 of the International Bulk Chemical Code, as defined in Regulation 8(a) of Chapter VII.
(l)“Closed ro-ro spaces” are ro-ro spaces which are neither open ro-ro spaces nor weather decks.
(m)“Closed vehicle spaces” are vehicle spaces which are neither open vehicle spaces nor weather decks.
(n)“Combination carrier” is a cargoes ship designed to carry both oil and solid cargoes in bulk.
(o)“Combustible material” is any material other than a non-combustible material.
(p)“Continuous “B””class ceilings or linings are those “B” class ceilings or linings which terminate at an “A” or “B” class division.
(q)“Continuously manned central control station” is a central control station which is continuously manned by a responsible member of the crew.
(r)“Control stations” are those spaces in which the ship’s radio or main navigating equipment or the emergency source of power is located or where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralized. Spaces where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralized are also considered to be a fire control station.
(s)“Crude oil” is any oil occurring naturally in the earth whether or not treated to render it suitable for transportation and includes crude oil where certain distillate fractions may have been removed from or added to.
(t)“Dangerous goods” are those goods referred to in Regulations 2 of Chapter VII.
(u)“Deadweight” is the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the lightweight of the ship.
(v)“Fire Safety Systems Code” means the International Code for the Fire Safety Systems as adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization by resolution MSC.98 (73), as may be amended by the Organization, provided that such amendments are adopted, brought into force and take effect in accordance with the provisions of article VIII of the present Convention concerning the amendment procedures applicable to the annex other than Chapter I thereof.
(w)“Fire Test Procedures Code” means the International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures as adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization by resolution MSC.61 (67), as may be amended by the Organization, provided that such amendments are adopted, brought into force and take effect in accordance with the provisions of article VIII of the present Convention concerning the amendment procedures applicable to the annex other than Chapter I thereof.
(x)“Flashpoint” is the temperature in degrees Celsius (closed cup test) at which a product will give off enough flammable vapour to be ignited, as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus.
(y)“Gas carrier” is a cargo ship constructed or adapted and used for the carriage in bulk of any liquefied gas or other products of a flammable nature listed in Chapter 19 of the International Gas Carrier Code, as defined in Regulation (a) of Chapter VII.
(z)“Helideck” is a purpose-built helicopter landing area located on a ship including all structure, fire-fighting appliances and other equipment necessary for the safe operation of helicopters.
(aa)“Helicopter facility” is a helideck including any refuelling and hangar facilities.
(bb)“Lightweight” is the displacement of a ship in tonnes without cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, fresh water and feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, and passengers and crew and their effects.
(cc)“Low flame-spread” means that the surface thus described will adequately restrict the spread of flame, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
(dd)“Machinery spaces” are machinery spaces of category A and other spaces containing propulsion machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and major electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigerating, stabilizing, ventilation and air conditioning machinery, and similar spaces, and trunks to such spaces.
(ee)“Machinery spaces” of category A are those spaces and trunks to such spaces which contain either:
(i)internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion;
(ii)internal combustion machinery used for purposes other than main propulsion where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less than 375 kW; or
(iii)any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit, or any oil-fired equipment other than boilers, such as inert gas generators, incinerators, etc.
(ff)“Main vertical zones” are those sections into which the hull, superstructure and deckhouses are divided by “A” class divisions, the mean length and width of which on any deck does not in general exceed 40 m.
(gg)“Non-combustible material” is a material which neither burns nor gives off flammable vapours in sufficient quantity for self-ignition when heated to approximately 750°C, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
(hh)“Oil fuel unit” is the equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil-fired boiler, or equipment used for the preparation for delivery of heated oil to an internal combustion engine, and includes any oil pressure pumps, filters and heaters dealing with oil at a pressure of more than 0.18 N/mm2.
(ii)“Open ro-ro spaces” are those ro-ro spaces that are either open at both ends or have an opening at one end, and are provided with adequate natural ventilation effective over their entire length through permanent openings distributed in the side plating or deckhead or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total area of the space sides.
(jj)“Open vehicle spaces” are those vehicle spaces either open at both ends, or have an opening at one end and are provided with adequate natural ventilation effective over their entire length through permanent openings distributed in the side plating or deckhead or from above, having a total area of at least 10% of the total area of the space sides.
(kk)“Passenger ship” is a ship as defined in Regulations 2 of Chapter I.
(ll)“Prescriptive requirements” means the construction characteristics, limiting dimensions, or fire safety systems specified in Part B, C, D, E or G.
(mm)“Public spaces” are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls, dining rooms, lounges and similar permanently enclosed spaces.
(nn)“Rooms containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk”, for the purpose of Regulation 9, are those rooms containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk (whether cabins, public spaces, offices or other types of accommodation) in which:
(i)case furniture such as desks, wardrobes, dressing tables, bureaux, dressers, are constructed entirely of approved non-combustible materials, except that a combustible veneer not exceeding 2 mm may be used on the working surface of such articles;
(ii)free-standing furniture such as chairs, sofas, tables, are constructed with frames of non-combustible materials;
(iii)draperies, curtains and other suspended textile materials have qualities of resistance to the propagation of flame not inferior to those of wool having a mass of 0.8 kg/m2, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code;
(iv)floor coverings have low flame-spread characteristics;
(v)exposed surfaces of bulkheads, linings and ceilings have low flame-spread characteristics;
(vi)upholstered furniture has qualities of resistance to the ignition and propagation of flame, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code; and
(vii)bedding components have qualities of resistance to the ignition and propagation of flame, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
(oo)“Ro-ro spaces” are spaces not normally subdivided in any way and normally extending to either a substantial length or the entire length of the ship in which motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion and/or goods (packaged or in bulk, in or on rail or road cars, vehicles (including road or rail tankers), trailers, containers, pallets, demountable tanks or in or on similar stowage units or other receptacles) can be loaded and unloaded normally in a horizontal direction.
(pp)“Ro-ro passenger ship” means a passenger ship with ro-ro spaces or special category spaces.
(qq)“Steel or other equivalent material” means any non-combustible material which, by itself or due to insulation provided, has structural and integrity properties equivalent to steel at the end of the applicable exposure to the standard fire test (e.g. aluminium alloy with appropriate insulation).
(rr)“Sauna” is a hot room with temperatures normally varying between 80°—120°C where the heat is provided by a hot surface (e.g. by an electrically-heated oven). The hot room may also include the space where the oven is located and adjacent bathrooms.
(ss)“Service spaces” are those spaces used for galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, lockers, mail and specie rooms, storerooms, workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces, and similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.
(tt)“Special category spaces” are those enclosed vehicle spaces above and below the bulkhead deck, into and from which vehicles can be driven and to which passengers have access. Special category spaces may be accommodated on more than one deck provided that the total overall clear height for vehicles does not exceed 10 m.
(uu)“A standard fire test” is a test in which specimens of the relevant bulkheads or decks are exposed in a test furnace to temperatures corresponding approximately to the standard time-temperature curve in accordance with the test method specified in the Fire Test Procedures Code.
(vv)“Tanker” is a ship as defined in Regulation 2 of Chapter I.
(ww)“Vehicle spaces” are cargo spaces intended for carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion.
(xx)“Weather deck” is a deck which is completely exposed to the weather from above and from at least two sides.
Part BPrevention of Fire and Explosion
Regulation 4
Probability of Ignition
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to prevent the ignition of combustible materials or flammable liquids. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)means shall be provided to control leaks of flammable liquids;
(ii)means shall be provided to limit the accumulation of flammable vapours;
(iii)the ignitability of combustible materials shall be restricted;
(iv)ignition sources shall be restricted;
(v)ignition sources shall be separated from combustible materials and flammable liquids; and
(vi)the atmosphere in cargo tanks shall be maintained out of the explosive range.
Arrangements for oil fuel, lubrication oil and other flammable oils
(b)
(i)
Limitations in the use of oils as fuel
The following limitations shall apply to the use of oil as fuel:
(1)except as otherwise permitted by this paragraph, no oil fuel with a flashpoint of less than 60ºC shall be used;6
6  Refer to the Recommended procedures to prevent the illegal or accidental use of low flashpoint cargo oil as fuel adopted by the Organization by resolution A.565(14).
(2)in emergency generators oil fuel with a flashpoint of not less than 43ºC may be used;
(3)the use of oil fuel having a flashpoint of less than 60ºC but not less than 43ºC may be permitted (e.g., for feeding the emergency fire pump’s engines and the auxiliary machines which are not located in the machinery spaces of category A) subject to the following:
(A)fuel oil tanks except those arranged in double bottom compartments shall be located outside of machinery spaces of category A;
(B)provisions for the measurement of oil temperature are provided on the suction pipe of the oil fuel pump;
(C)stop valves and/or cocks are provided on the inlet side and outlet side of the oil fuel strainers; and
(D)pipe joints of welded construction or of circular cone type or spherical type union joint are applied as much as possible; and
(4)in cargo ships the use of fuel having a lower flashpoint than otherwise specified in paragraph (b)(i), for example crude oil, may be permitted provided that such fuel is not stored in any machinery space and subject to the approval by the Director of the complete installation.
(ii)Arrangements for oil fuelIn a ship in which oil fuel is used, the arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of the oil fuel shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ship and persons on board and shall at least comply with the following provisions.
(1)Location of oil fuel systems
As far as practicable, parts of the oil fuel system containing heated oil under pressure exceeding 0.18 N/mm2 shall not be placed in a concealed position such that defects and leakage cannot readily be observed. The machinery spaces in way of such parts of the oil fuel system shall be adequately illuminated.
(2)Ventilation of machinery spaces
The ventilation of machinery spaces shall be sufficient under normal conditions to prevent accumulation of oil vapour.
(3)Oil fuel tanks
(A)Fuel oil, lubrication oil and other flammable oils shall not be carried in forepeak tanks.
(B)As far as practicable, oil fuel tanks shall be part of the ships structure and shall be located outside machinery spaces of category A. Where oil fuel tanks, other than double bottom tanks, are necessarily located adjacent to or within machinery spaces of category A, at least one of their vertical sides shall be contiguous to the machinery space boundaries, and shall preferably have a common boundary with the double bottom tanks, and the area of the tank boundary common with the machinery spaces shall be kept to a minimum. Where such tanks are situated within the boundaries of machinery spaces of category A they shall not contain oil fuel having a flashpoint of less than 60ºC. In general, the use of free-standing oil fuel tanks shall be avoided. When such tanks are employed their use shall be prohibited in category A machinery spaces on passenger ships. Where permitted, they shall be placed in an oil-tight spill tray of ample size having a suitable drain pipe leading to a suitably sized spill oil tank.
(C)No oil fuel tank shall be situated where spillage or leakage therefrom can constitute a fire or explosion hazard by falling on heated surfaces.
(D)Oil fuel pipes, which, if damaged, would allow oil to escape from a storage, settling or daily service tank having a capacity of 500 litres and above situated above the double bottom, shall be fitted with a cock or valve directly on the tank capable of being closed from a safe position outside the space concerned in the event of a fire occurring in the space in which such tanks are situated. In the special case of deep tanks situated in any shaft or pipe tunnel or similar space, valves on the tank shall be fitted, but control in the event of fire may be effected by means of an additional valve on the pipe or pipes outside the tunnel or similar space. If such an additional valve is fitted in the machinery space it shall be operated from a position outside this space. The controls for remote operation of the valve for the emergency generator fuel tank shall be in a separate location from the controls for remote operation of other valves for tanks located in machinery spaces.
(E)Safe and efficient means of ascertaining the amount of oil fuel contained in any oil fuel tank shall be provided.
(I)Where sounding pipes are used, they shall not terminate in any space where the risk of ignition of spillage from the sounding pipe might arise. In particular, they shall not terminate in passenger or crew spaces. As a general rule, they shall not terminate in machinery spaces. However, where the Director considers that these latter requirements are impracticable, it may permit termination of sounding pipes in machinery spaces on condition that all of the following requirements are met:
(1)an oil-level gauge is provided meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (E) (II);
(2)the sounding pipes terminate in locations remote from ignition hazards unless precautions are taken, such as the fitting of effective screens, to prevent the oil fuel in the case of spillage through the terminations of the sounding pipes from coming into contact with a source of ignition; and
(3)the termination of sounding pipes are fitted with self-closing blanking devices and with a small-diameter self-closing control cock located below the blanking device for the purpose of ascertaining before the blanking device is opened that oil fuel is not present. Provisions shall be made so as to ensure that any spillage of oil fuel through the control cock involves no ignition hazard.
(II)Other oil-level gauges may be used in place of sounding pipes subject to the following conditions:
(1)in passenger ships, such gauges shall not require penetration below the top of the tank and their failure or overfilling of the tanks shall not permit release of fuel; and
(2)in cargo ships, the failure of such gauges or overfilling of the tank shall not permit release of fuel into the space. The use of cylindrical gauge glasses is prohibited. The Director may permit the use of oil-level gauges with flat glasses and self-closing valves between the gauges and fuel tanks.
(III)The means prescribed in paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (E) (II) which are acceptable to the Director shall be maintained in the proper condition to ensure their continued accurate functioning in service.
(4)Prevention of overpressure
Provisions shall be made to prevent overpressure in any oil tank or in any part of the oil fuel system, including the filling pipes served by pumps on board. Air and overflow pipes and relief valves shall discharge to a position where there is no risk of fire or explosion from the emergence of oils and vapour and shall not lead into crew spaces, passenger spaces nor into special category spaces, closed ro-ro cargo spaces, machinery spaces or similar spaces.
(5)Oil fuel piping
(A)Oil fuel pipes and their valves and fittings shall be of steel or other approved material, except that restricted use of flexible pipes shall be permissible in positions where the Director is satisfied that they are necessary.7 Such flexible pipes and end attachments shall be of approved fire-resisting material of adequate strength and shall be constructed to the satisfaction of the Director. For valves, fitted to oil fuel tanks and which are under static pressure, steel or spheroidal-graphite cast iron may be accepted. However, ordinary cast iron valves may be used in piping systems where the design pressure is lower than 7 bar and the design temperature is below 60°C.
7  Refer to recommendations published by the International Organization for Standardization, in particular, Publications ISO 15540:1999 on Test methods for fire resistance of hose assemblies and ISO 15541:1999 on Requirements for the test bench of fire resistance of hose assemblies.
(B)External high-pressure fuel delivery lines between the high-pressure fuel pumps and fuel injectors shall be protected with a jacketed piping system capable of containing fuel from a high-pressure line failure. A jacketed pipe incorporates an outer pipe into which the high-pressure fuel pipe is placed, forming a permanent assembly. The jacketed piping system shall include a means for collection of leakages and arrangements shall be provided with an alarm in case of a fuel line failure.
(C)Oil fuel lines shall not be locatd immediately above or near unit of high temperature including boilers, steam pipelines, exhaust manifolds, silencers or other equipment required to be insulated by paragraph (b)(ii) (6). As far as practicable, oil fuel lines shall be arranged far apart from hot surfaces, electrical installations or other sources of ignition and shall be screened or otherwise suitably protected to avoid oil spray or oil leakage onto the sources of ignition. The number of joints in such piping systems shall be kept to a minimum.
(D)Components of a diesel engine fuel system shall be designed considering the maximum peak pressure which will be experienced in service, including any high pressure pulses which are generated and transmitted back into the fuel supply and spill lines by the action of fuel injection pumps. Connections within the fuel supply and spill lines shall be constructed having regard to their ability to prevent pressurized oil fuel leaks while in service and after maintenance.
(E)In multi-engine installations which are supplied from the same fuel source, means of isolating the fuel supply and spill piping to individual engines, shall be provided. The means of isolations shall not affect the operation of the other engines and shall be operable from a position not rendered inaccessible by a fire on any of the engines.
(F)Where the Director may permit the conveying of oil and combustible liquids through accommodation and service spaces, the pipes conveying oil or combustible liquids shall be of a material approved by the Director having regard to the fire risk.
(6)Protection of high temperature surfaces
(A)Surfaces with temperatures above 220°C which may be impinged as a result of a fuel system failure shall be properly insulated.
(B)Precautions shall be taken to prevent any oil that may escape under pressure from any pump, filter or heater from coming into contact with heated surfaces.
(iii)Arrangements for lubricating oil
(1)The arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of oil used in pressure lubrication systems shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ship and persons on board. The arrangements made in machinery spaces of Category A, and whenever practicable in other machinery spaces, shall at least comply with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(ii) (1), (b)(ii) (3) (C) to (E), (b)(ii) (4), (b)(ii) (5) (A), (b)(ii) (5) (C) and (b)(ii) (6), except that:
(A)this does not preclude the use of sight-flow glasses in lubricating systems provided that they are shown by testing to have a suitable degree of fire resistance; and
(B)sounding pipes may be authorized in machinery spaces; however, the requirements of paragraphs (b)(ii) (3) (E) (I) (1) and (3) need not be applied on condition that the sounding pipes are fitted with appropriate means of closure.
(2)The provisions of paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (D) shall also apply to lubricating oil tanks except those having a capacity less than 500 litres, storage tanks on which valves are closed during the normal operation mode of the ship, or where it is determined that an unintended operation of a quick closing valve on the oil lubricating tank would endanger the safe operation of the main propulsion and essential auxiliary machinery.
(iv)Arrangements for other flammable oilsThe arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of other flammable oils employed under pressure in power transmission systems, control and activating systems and heating systems shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ship and persons on board. Suitable oil collecting arrangements for leaks shall be fitted below hydraulic valves and cylinders. In locations where means of ignition are present, such arrangements shall at least comply with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(ii) (3) (C), (b)(ii) (3) (E), (b)(ii) (5) (C) and (b)(ii) (6) and with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(ii) (4) and (b)(ii) (5) (A) in respect of strength and construction.
(v)Arrangements for oil fuel in periodically unattended machinery spaces
In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b)(i) to (iv), the oil fuel and lubricating oil systems in a periodically unattended machinery space shall comply with the following:
(1)where daily service oil fuel tanks are filled automatically, or by remote control, means shall be provided to prevent overflow spillages. Other equipment which treats flammable liquids automatically (e.g. oil fuel purifiers) which, whenever practicable, shall be installed in a special space reserved for purifiers and their heaters, shall have arrangements to prevent overflow spillages; and
(2)where daily service oil fuel tanks or settling tanks are fitted with heating arrangements, a high temperature alarm shall be provided if the flashpoint of the oil fuel can be exceeded.
Arrangements for gaseous fuel for domestic purpose
(c)Gaseous fuel systems used for domestic purposes shall be approved by the Director. Storage of gas bottles shall be located on the open deck or in a well ventilated space which opens only to the open deck.
Miscellaneous items of ignition sources and ignitability
(d)
(i)Electric radiators
Electric radiators, if used, shall be fixed in position and so constructed as to reduce fire risks to a minimum. No such radiators shall be fitted with an element so exposed that clothing, curtains, or other similar materials can be scorched or set on fire by heat from the element.
(ii)Waste receptacles
Waste receptacles shall be constructed of non-combustible materials with no openings in the sides or bottom.
(iii)Insulation surfaces protected against oil penetration
In spaces where penetration of oil products is possible, the surface of insulation shall be impervious to oil or oil vapours.
(iv)Primary deck coverings
Primary deck coverings, if applied within accommodation and service spaces and control stations, shall be of approved material which will not readily ignite, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
Cargo areas of tankers
(e)
(i)
Separation of cargo oil tanks
(1)Cargo pump-rooms, cargo tanks, slop tanks and cofferdams shall be positioned forward of machinery spaces. However, oil fuel bunker tanks need not be forward of machinery spaces. Cargo tanks and slop tanks shall be isolated from machinery spaces by cofferdams, cargo pump-rooms, oil bunker tanks or ballast tanks. Pump-rooms containing pumps and their accessories for ballasting those spaces situated adjacent to cargo tanks and slop tanks and pumps for oil fuel transfer, shall be considered as equivalent to a cargo pump-room within the context of this Regulation provided that such pump-rooms have the same safety standard as that required for cargo pump-rooms. Pump-rooms intended solely for ballast or oil fuel transfer, however, need not comply with the requirements of Regulation 10(i). The lower portion of the pump-room may be recessed into machinery spaces of category A to accommodate pumps, provided that the deck head of the recess is in general not more than one third of the moulded depth above the keel, except that in the case of ships of not more than 25,000 tonnes deadweight, where it can be demonstrated that for reasons of access and satisfactory piping arrangements this is impracticable, the Director may permit a recess in excess of such height, but not exceeding one half of the moulded depth above the keel.
(2)Main cargo control stations, control stations, accommodation and service spaces (excluding isolated cargo handling gear lockers) shall be positioned aft of cargo tanks, slop tanks, and spaces which isolate cargo or slop tanks from machinery spaces, but not necessarily aft of the oil fuel bunker tanks and ballast tanks, and shall be arranged in such a way that a single failure of a deck or bulkhead shall not permit the entry of gas or fumes from the cargo tanks into an accommodation space, main cargo control stations, control station, or service spaces. A recess provided in accordance with paragraph (e)(i) (1) need not be taken into account when the position of these spaces is being determined.
(3)However, where deemed necessary, the Director may permit main cargo control stations, control stations, accommodation and service spaces forward of the cargo tanks, slop tanks and spaces which isolate cargo and slop tanks from machinery spaces, but not necessarily forward of oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks. Machinery spaces, other than those of category A, may be permitted forward of the cargo tanks and slop tanks provided they are isolated from the cargo tanks and slop tanks by cofferdams, cargo pump-rooms, oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks, and have at least one portable fire extinguisher. In cases where they contain internal combustion machinery, one approved foam-type extinguisher of at least 45 litres capacity or equivalent shall be arranged in addition to portable fire extinguishers. If operation of a semi-portable fire extinguisher is impracticable, this fire extinguisher may be replaced by two additional portable fire extinguishers. Accommodation spaces, main cargo control spaces, control stations and service spaces shall be arranged in such a way that a single failure of a deck or bulkhead shall not permit the entry of gas or fumes from the cargo tanks into such spaces. In addition, where deemed necessary for the safety or navigation of the ship, the Director may permit machinery spaces containing internal combustion machinery not being main propulsion machinery having an output greater than 375 kW to be located forward of the cargo area provided the arrangements are in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph.
(4)In combination carriers only:
(A)The slop tanks shall be surrounded by cofferdams except where the boundaries of the slop tanks, where slop may be carried on dry cargo voyages, are part of the hull, main cargo deck, cargo pump-room bulkhead or oil fuel bunker tank. These cofferdams shall not be open to a double bottom, pipe tunnel, pump-room or other enclosed space, nor shall they be used for cargo or ballast and shall not be connected to piping systems serving oil cargo or ballast. Means shall be provided for filling the cofferdams with water and for draining them. Where the boundary of a slop tank is part of the cargo pump-room bulkhead, the pump-room shall not be open to the double bottom, pipe tunnel or other enclosed space; however, openings provided with gas tight bolted covers may be permitted;
(B)Means shall be provided for isolating the piping connecting the pump-room with the slop tanks referred to in paragraph ( e) (i) (4) (A). The means of isolation shall consist of a valve followed by a spectacle flange or a spool piece with appropriate blank flanges. This arrangement shall be located adjacent to the slop tanks, but where this is unreasonable or impracticable, it may be located within the pump-room directly after the piping penetrates the bulkhead. A separate permanently installed pumping and piping arrangement incorporating a manifold, provided with a shut-off valve and a blank flange, shall be provided for discharging the contents of the slop tanks directly to the open deck for disposal to shore reception facilities when the ship is in the dry cargo mode. When the transfer system is used for slop transfer in the dry cargo mode, it shall have no connection to other systems. Separation from other systems by means of removal of spool pieces may be accepted;
(C)Hatches and tank cleaning openings to slop tanks shall only be permitted on the open deck and shall be fitted with closing arrangements. Except where they consist of bolted plates with bolts at watertight spacing, these closing arrangements shall be provided with locking arrangements under the control of the responsible ship’s officer; and
(D)Where cargo wing tanks are provided, cargo oil lines below deck shall be installed inside these tanks. However, the Director may permit cargo oil lines to be placed in special ducts provided there are capable of being adequately cleaned and ventilated to the satisfaction of the Director. Where cargo wing tanks are not provided, cargo oil lines below deck shall be placed in special ducts.
(5)Where the fitting of a navigation position above the cargo area is shown to be necessary, it shall be for navigation purposes only and it shall be separated from the cargo tank deck by means of an open space with a height of at least 2 m. The fire protection requirements for such a navigation position shall be that required for control stations, as specified in Regulation (b)(iv) (2) and other provisions for tankers, as applicable.
(6)Means shall be provided to keep deck spills away from the accommodation and service areas. This may be accomplished by provision of a permanent continuous coaming of a height of at least 300 mm, extending from side to side. Special consideration shall be given to the arrangements associated with stern loading.
(ii)Restriction on boundary openings
(1)Except as permitted in paragraph (e)(ii) (2), access doors, air inlets and openings to accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces shall not face the cargo area. They shall be located on the transverse bulkhead not facing the cargo area or on the outboard side of the superstructure or deckhouse at a distance of at least 4% of the length of the ship but not less than 3 m from the end of the superstructure or deckhouse facing the cargo area. This distance need not exceed 5 m.
(2)The Director may permit access doors in boundary bulkheads facing the cargo area or within the 5 m limits specified in paragraph (e)(ii) (1), to main cargo control stations and to such service spaces used as provision rooms, storerooms and lockers, provided they do not give access directly or indirectly to any other space containing or providing for accommodation, control stations or service spaces such as galleys, pantries or workshops, or similar spaces containing sources of vapour ignition. The boundary of such a space shall be insulated to “A-60” standard, with the exception of the boundary facing the cargo area. Bolted plates for the removal of machinery may be fitted within the limits specified in paragraph (e)(ii) (1). Wheelhouse doors and windows may be located within the limits specified in paragraph (e)(ii) (1) so long as they are designed to ensure that the wheelhouse can be made rapidly and efficiently gas and vapour tight.
(3)Windows and sidescuttles facing the cargo area and on the sides of the superstructures and deckhouses within the limits specified in paragraph (e)(ii) (1) shall be of the fixed (non-opening) type. Such windows and sidescuttles, except wheelhouse windows, shall be constructed to “A-60” class standard.
(4)Where there is permanent access from a pipe tunnel to the main pump-room, a watertight door shall be fitted complying with the requirements of Regulation 25-9 (b) of Chapter II-1 and, in addition, with the following:
(A)in addition to the bridge operation, the watertight door shall be capable of being manually closed from outside the main pump-room entrance; and
(B)the watertight door shall be kept closed during normal operations of the ship except when access to the pipe tunnel is required.
(5)Permanent approved gas tight lighting enclosures for illuminating cargo pump-rooms may be permitted in bulkheads and decks separating cargo pump-rooms and other spaces provided they are of adequate strength and the integrity and gas tightness of the bulkhead or deck is maintained.
(6)The arrangement of ventilation inlets and outlets and other deckhouse and superstructure boundary space openings shall be such as to complement the provisions of paragraph (e)(iii) and Regulation 11(f). Such vents, especially for machinery spaces, shall be situated as far aft as practicable. Due consideration in this regard shall be given when the ship is equipped to load or discharge at the stern. Sources of ignition such as electrical equipment shall be so arranged as to avoid an explosion hazard.
(iii)Cargo tank venting
(1)General requirements
The venting systems of cargo tanks are to be entirely distinct from the air pipes of the other compartments of the ship. The arrangements and position of openings in the cargo tank deck from which emission of flammable vapours can occur shall be such as to minimize the possibility of flammable vapours being admitted to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition, or collecting in the vicinity of deck machinery and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard. In accordance with this general principle, the criteria in paragraphs (e)(iii) (2) to (5) and Regulation 11(f) will apply.
(2)Venting arrangements
(A)The venting arrangements in each cargo tank may be independent or combined with other cargo tanks and may be incorporated into the inert gas piping.
(B)Where the arrangements are combined with other cargo tanks, either stop valves or other acceptable means shall be provided to isolate each cargo tank. Where stop valves are fitted, they shall be provided with locking arrangements which shall be under the control of the responsible ship’s officer. There shall be a clear visual indication of the operational status of the valves or other acceptable means. Where tanks have been isolated, it shall be ensured that relevant isolating valves are opened before cargo loading or ballasting or discharging of those tanks is commenced. Any isolation must continue to permit the flow caused by thermal variations in a cargo tank in accordance with Regulation 11(f)(i)(1).
(C)If cargo loading and ballasting or discharging of a cargo tank or cargo tank group is intended, which is isolated from a common venting system, that cargo tank or cargo tank group shall be fitted with a means for over-pressure or under-pressure protection as required in Regulation 11(f)(iii)(2).
(D)The venting arrangements shall be connected to the top of each cargo tank and shall be self-draining to the cargo tanks under all normal conditions of trim and list of the ship. Where it may not be possible to provide self-draining lines, permanent arrangements shall be provided to drain the vent lines to a cargo tank.
(3)Safety devices in venting systems
The venting system shall be provided with devices to prevent the passage of flame into the cargo tanks. The design, testing and locating of these devices shall comply with the requirements established by the Director based on the guidelines developed by the Organization.8 Ullage openings shall not be used for pressure equalization. They shall be provided with self-closing and tightly sealing covers. Flame arresters and screens are not permitted in these openings.
8  Refer to MSC/Circ.677 on Revised standards for the design, testing and locating of devices to prevent the passage of flame into cargo tanks in tankers and to MSC/Cir.450/Rev.1 on Revised factors to be taken into consideration when designing cargo tank venting and gas-freeing arrangements.
(4)Vent outlets for cargo handling and ballasting
(A)Vent outlets for cargo loading, discharging and ballasting required by Regulation 11(f)(i)(2) shall:
(I)(1) permit the free flow of vapour mixtures; or
(I)(2) permit the throttling of the discharge of the vapour mixtures to achieve a velocity of not less than 30 m/s;
(II)be so arranged that the vapour mixture is discharged vertically upwards;
(III)where the method is by free flow of vapour mixtures, be such that the outlet shall be not less than 6 m above the cargo tank deck or fore and aft gangway if situated within 4 m of the gangway and located not less than 10 m measured horizontally from the nearest air intakes and openings to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck machinery, which may include anchor windlass and chain locker openings, and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard; and
(IV)where the method is by high-velocity discharge, be located at a height not less than 2 m above the cargo tank deck and not less than 10 m measured horizontally from the nearest air intakes and openings to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck machinery, which may include anchor windlass and chain locker openings, and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard. These outlets shall be provided with high velocity devices of an approved type.
(B)The arrangements for the venting of vapours displaced from the cargo tanks during loading and ballasting shall comply with paragraph (e)(iii) and Regulation 11(f) and shall consist of either one or more mast risers, or a number of high-velocity vents. The inert gas supply main may be used for such venting.
(5)Isolation of slop tanks in combination carriers
In combination carriers, the arrangements for isolating slop tanks containing oil or oil residues from other cargo tanks shall consist of blank flanges which will remain in position at all times when cargoes other than liquid cargoes referred to in Regulation 1(f)(i) are carried.
(iv)Ventilation
(1)Ventilation systems in cargo pump-rooms
Cargo pump-rooms shall be mechanically ventilated and discharges from the exhaust fans shall be led to a safe place on the open deck. The ventilation of these rooms shall have sufficient capacity to minimize the possibility of accumulation of flammable vapours. The number of air changes shall be at least 20 per hour, based upon the gross volume of the space. The air ducts shall be arranged so that all of the space is effectively ventilated. The ventilation shall be of the suction type using fans of the non-sparking type.
(2)Ventilation systems in combination carriers
In combination carriers, cargo spaces and any enclosed spaces adjacent to cargo spaces shall be capable of being mechanically ventilated. The mechanical ventilation may be provided by portable fans. An approved fixed gas warning system capable of monitoring flammable vapours shall be provided in cargo pump-rooms, pipe ducts and cofferdams, as referred to in paragraph (e)(i) (4), adjacent to slop tanks. Suitable arrangements shall be made to facilitate measurement of flammable vapours in all other spaces within the cargo area. Such measurements shall be made possible from the open deck or easily accessible positions.
(v)Inert gas systems
(1)Application
(A)For tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards, the protection of the cargo tanks shall be achieved by a fixed inert gas system in accordance with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code, except that, in lieu of the above, the Director, after having given consideration to the ship’s arrangement and equipment, may accept other fixed installations if they afford protection equivalent to the above, in accordance with Regulation 5 of Chapter I. The requirements for alternative fixed installations shall comply with the requirements in paragraph (e)(v) (4).
(B)Tankers operating with a cargo tank cleaning procedure using crude oil washing shall be fitted with an inert gas system complying with the Fire Safety Systems Code and with fixed tank washing machines.
(C)Tankers required to be fitted with inert gas systems shall comply with the following provisions:
(I)double hull spaces shall be fitted with suitable connections for the supply of inert gas;
(II)where hull spaces are connected to a permanently fitted inert gas distribution system, means shall be provided to prevent hydrocarbon gases from the cargo tanks entering the double hull spaces through the system; and
(III)where such spaces are not permanently connected to an inert gas distribution system, appropriate means shall be provided to allow connection to the inert gas main.
(2)Inert gas systems of chemical tankers and gas carriersThe requirements for inert gas systems contained in the Fire Safety Systems Code need not be applied to:
(A)chemical tankers and gas carriers when carrying cargoes described in Regulation 1(f)(i), provided that they comply with the requirements for inert gas systems on chemical tankers established by the Director, based on the guidelines developed by the Organization;9 or
9  Refer to the Regulation for inert gas systems on chemical tankers adopted by the Organization by resolution A.567(14) and Corr.1.
(B)chemical tankers and gas carriers when carrying flammable cargoes other than crude oil or petroleum products such as cargoes listed in Chapters 17 and 18 of the International Bulk Chemical Code, provided that the capacity of tanks used for their carriage does not exceed 3,000 m3 and the individual nozzle capacities of tank washing machines do not exceed 17.5 m3/h and the total combined throughput from the number of machines in use in a cargo tank at any one time does not exceed 110 m3/h.
(3)General requirements for inert gas systems
(A)The inert gas system shall be capable of inerting, purging and gas-freeing empty tanks and maintaining the atmosphere in cargo tanks with the required oxygen content.
(B)The inert gas system referred to in paragraph (e)(v) (3) (A) shall be designed, constructed and tested in accordance with the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(C)Tankers fitted with a fixed inert gas system shall be provided with a closed ullage system.
(4)Requirements for equivalent systems
(A)Where an installation equivalent to a fixed inert gas system is installed, it shall:
(I)be capable of preventing dangerous accumulations of explosive mixtures in intact cargo tanks during normal service throughout the ballast voyage and necessary in-tank operations; and
(II)be so designed as to minimize the risk of ignition from the generation of static electricity by the system itself.
(vi)Inerting, purging and gas-freeing
(1)Arrangements for purging and/or gas-freeing shall be such as to minimize the hazards due to dispersal of flammable vapours in the atmosphere and to flammable mixtures in a cargo tank.
(2)The procedure for cargo tank purging and/or gas-freeing shall be carried out in accordance with Regulation 16(c)(ii).
(3)The arrangements for inerting, purging or gas-freeing of empty tanks as required in paragraph (e)(v) (3) (A) shall be to the satisfaction of the Director and shall be such that the accumulation of hydrocarbon vapours in pockets formed by the internal structural members in a tank is minimized and that:
(A)on individual cargo tanks, the gas outlet pipe, if fitted, shall be positioned as far as practicable from the inert gas/air inlet and in accordance with paragraph (e)(iii) and Regulation 11(f). The inlet of such outlet pipes may be located either at deck level or at not more than 1 m above the bottom of the tank;
(B)the cross-sectional area of such gas outlet pipe referred to in paragraph (e)(vi) (3) (A) shall be such that an exit velocity of at least 20 m/s can be maintained when any three tanks are being simultaneously supplied with inert gas. Their outlets shall extend not less than 2 m above deck level; and
(C)each gas outlet referred to in paragraph (e)(vi) (3) (B) shall be fitted with suitable blanking arrangements.
(vii)Gas measurement
(1)Portable instrumentTankers shall be equipped with at least one portable instrument for measuring flammable vapour concentrations, together with a sufficient set of spares. Suitable means shall be provided for the calibration of such instruments.
(2)Arrangements for gas measurement in double hull and double bottom spaces
(A)Suitable portable instruments for measuring oxygen and flammable vapour concentrations shall be provided. In selecting these instruments, due attention shall be given to their use in combination with the fixed gas-sampling-line systems referred to in paragraph (e)(vii) (2) (B).
(B)Where the atmosphere in double hull spaces cannot be reliably measured using flexible gas sampling hoses, such spaces shall be fitted with permanent gas sampling lines. The configuration of gas sampling lines shall be adapted to the design of such spaces.
(C)The materials of construction and the dimensions of gas sampling lines shall be such as to prevent restriction. Where plastic materials are used, they shall be electrically conductive.
(viii)Air supply to double hull and double bottom spacesDouble hull and double bottom spaces shall be fitted with suitable connections for the supply of air.
(ix)Protection of cargo areaDrip pans for collecting cargo residues in cargo lines and hoses shall be provided in the area of pipe and hose connections under the manifold area. Cargo hoses and tank washing hoses shall have electrical continuity over their entire lengths including couplings and flanges (except shore connections) and shall be earthed for removal of electrostatic charges.
(x)Protection of cargo pump-rooms
(1)In tankers:
(A)cargo pumps, ballast pumps and stripping pumps, installed in cargo pump-rooms and driven by shafts passing through pump-room bulkheads shall be fitted with temperature sensing devices for bulkhead shaft glands, bearings and pump casings. A continuous audible and visual alarm signal shall be automatically effected in the cargo control room or the pump control station;
(B)lighting in cargo pump-rooms, except emergency lighting, shall be interlocked with ventilation such that the ventilation shall be in operation when switching on the lighting. Failure of the ventilation system shall not cause the lighting to go out;
(C)a system for continuous monitoring of the concentration of hydrocarbon gases shall be fitted. Sampling points or detector heads shall be located in suitable positions in order that potentially dangerous leakages are readily detected. When the hydrocarbon gas concentration reaches a pre-set level which shall not be higher than 10% of the lower flammable limit, a continuous audible and visual alarm signal shall be automatically effected in the pump-room, engine control room, cargo control room and navigation bridge to alert personnel to the potential hazard; and
(D)all pump-rooms shall be provided with bilge level monitoring devices together with appropriately located alarms.
Regulation 5
Fire Growth Potential
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to limit the fire growth potential in every space of the ship. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)means of control for the air supply to the space shall be provided;
(ii)means of control for flammable liquids in the space shall be provided; and
(iii)the use of combustible materials shall be restricted.
Control of air supply and flammable liquid to the space
(b)
(i)Closing appliances and stopping devices of ventilation
(1)The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems shall be capable of being closed from outside the spaces being ventilated. The means of closing shall be easily accessible as well as prominently and permanently marked and shall indicate whether the shut-off is open or closed.
(2)Power ventilation of accommodation spaces, service spaces, cargo spaces, control stations and machinery spaces shall be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible position outside the space being served. This position shall not be readily cut off in the event of a fire in the spaces served.
(3)In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, power ventilation, except machinery space and cargo space ventilation and any alternative system which may be required under Regulation 8(b), shall be fitted with controls so grouped that all fans may be stopped from either of two separate positions which shall be situated as far apart as practicable. Fans serving power ventilation systems to cargo spaces shall be capable of being stopped from a safe position outside such spaces.
(ii)Means of control in machinery spaces
(1)Means of control shall be provided for opening and closure of skylights, closure of openings in funnels which normally allow exhaust ventilation and closure of ventilator dampers.
(2)Means of control shall be provided for stopping ventilating fans. Controls provided for the power ventilation serving machinery spaces shall be grouped so as to be operable from two positions, one of which shall be outside such spaces. The means provided for stopping the power ventilation of the machinery spaces shall be entirely separate from the means provided for stopping ventilation of other spaces.
(3)Means of control shall be provided for stopping forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps, oil fuel unit pumps, lubricating oil service pumps, thermal oil circulating pumps and oil separators (purifiers). However, paragraphs (b)(ii) (4) and (b)(ii) (5) need not apply to oily water separators.
(4)The controls required in paragraphs (b)(ii) (1) to (3) and in Regulation 4(b)(ii)(3)(D) shall be located outside the space concerned so they will not be cut off in the event of fire in the space they serve.
(5)In passenger ships, the controls required in paragraphs (b)(ii) (1) to (4) and in Regulations 8 (c)(iii) and 9 (e)(ii) (3) and the controls for any required fire-extinguishing system shall be situated at one control position or grouped in as few positions as possible to the satisfaction of the Director. Such positions shall have a safe access from the open deck.
(iii)Additional requirements for means of control in periodically unattended machinery spaces
(1)For periodically unattended machinery spaces, the Director shall give special consideration to maintaining the fire integrity of the machinery spaces, the location and centralization of the fire-extinguishing system controls, the required shutdown arrangements (e.g. ventilation, fuel pumps, etc.) and that additional fire-extinguishing appliances and other fire-fighting equipment and breathing apparatus may be required.
(2)In passenger ships, these requirements shall be at least equivalent to those of machinery spaces normally attended.
Fire protection materials
(c)
(i)
Use of non-combustible materials
(1)Insulating materialsInsulating materials shall be non-combustible, except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms and refrigerated compartments of service spaces. Vapour barriers and adhesives used in conjunction with insulation, as well as the insulation of pipe fittings for cold service systems, need not be of non-combustible materials, but they shall be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and their exposed surfaces shall have low flame-spread characteristics.
(2)Ceilings and linings
(A)In passenger ships, except in cargo spaces, all linings, grounds, draught stops and ceilings shall be of non-combustible material except in mail rooms, baggage rooms, saunas or refrigerated compartments of service spaces. Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for utility or artistic treatment shall also be of non-combustible materials.
(B)In cargo ships, all linings, ceilings, draught stops and their associated grounds shall be of non-combustible materials in the following spaces:
(I)in accommodation and service spaces and control stations for ships where Method IC is specified as referred to in Regulation 9(b)(iii)(1); and
(II)in corridors and stairway enclosures serving accommodation and service spaces and control stations for ships where Method IIC and IIIC are specified as referred to in Regulation 9(b)(iii)(1).
(ii)Use of combustible materials
(1)General
(A)In passenger ships, “A”, “B” or “C” class divisions in accommodation and services spaces which are faced with combustible materials, facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers shall comply with the provisions of paragraphs (c)(ii) (2) to (4) and Regulation 6. However, traditional wooden benches and wooden linings on bulkheads and ceilings are permitted in saunas and such materials need not be subject to the calculations prescribed in paragraphs (c)(ii) (2) and (3).
(B)In cargo ships, non-combustible bulkheads, ceilings and linings fitted in accommodation and service spaces may be faced with combustible materials, facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers provided such spaces are bounded by non-combustible bulkheads, ceilings and linings in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (c)(ii) (2) to (4) and Regulation 6.
(2)Maximum calorific value of combustible materialsCombustible materials used on the surfaces and linings specified in paragraph (c)(ii) (1) shall have a calorific value10 not exceeding 45 MJ/m2 of the area for the thickness used. The requirements of this paragraph are not applicable to the surfaces of furniture fixed to linings or bulkheads.
10  Refer to the recommendations published by the International Organization for Standardization, in particular, Publication ISO 1716:1973 on Determination of calorific potential.
(3)Total volume of combustible materialsWhere combustible materials are used in accordance with paragraph (c)(ii) (1), they shall comply with the following requirements:
(A)The total volume of combustible facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers in accommodation and service spaces shall not exceed a volume equivalent to 2.5 mm veneer on the combined area of the walls and ceiling linings. Furniture fixed to linings, bulkheads or decks need not be included in the calculation of the total volume of combustible materials; and
(B)In the case of ships fitted with an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, the above volume may include some combustible material used for erection of “C” class divisions.
(4)Low flame-spread characteristics of exposed surfacesThe following surfaces shall have low flame-spread characteristics in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code:
(A)In passenger ships:
(I)exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures and of bulkhead and ceiling linings in accommodation and service spaces (except saunas) and control stations; and
(II)surfaces and grounds in concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation and service spaces and control stations.
(B)In cargo ships:
(I)exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures and of ceilings in accommodation and service spaces (except saunas) and control stations; and
(II)surfaces and grounds in concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation and service spaces and control stations.
(iii)Furniture in stairway enclosures of passenger shipsFurniture in stairway enclosures shall be limited to seating. It shall be fixed, limited to six seats on each deck in each stairway enclosure, be of restricted fire risk determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code, and shall not restrict the passenger escape route. The Director may permit additional seating in the main reception area within a stairway enclosure if it is fixed, non-combustible and does not restrict the passenger escape route. Furniture shall not be permitted in passenger and crew corridors forming escape routes in cabin areas. In addition to the above, lockers of non-combustible material, providing storage for non-hazardous safety equipment required by these Regulations, may be permitted. Drinking water dispensers and ice cube machines may be permitted in corridors provided they are fixed and do not restrict the width of the escape routes. This applies as well to decorative flower or plant arrangements, statues or other objects of art such as paintings and tapestries in corridors and stairways.
Regulation 6
Smoke Generation Potential and Toxicity
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to reduce the hazard to life from smoke and toxic products generated during a fire in spaces where persons normally work or live. For this purpose, the quantity of smoke and toxic products released from combustible materials, including surface finishes, during fire shall be limited.
Paints, varnishes and other finishes
(b)Paints, varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces shall not be capable of producing excessive quantities of smoke and toxic products, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
Primary deck coverings
(c)Primary deck coverings, if applied within accommodation and service spaces and control stations, shall be of approved material which will not give rise to smoke or toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code
PART C — SUPPRESSION OF FIRE
Regulation 7
Detection and Alarm
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to detect a fire in the space of origin and to provide for alarm for safe escape and fire-fighting activity. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fixed fire detection and fire alarm system installations shall be suitable for the nature of the space, fire growth potential and potential generation of smoke and gases;
(ii)manually operated call points shall be placed effectively to ensure a readily accessible means of notification; and
(iii)fire patrols shall provide an effective means of detecting and locating fires and alerting the navigation bridge and fire teams.
General requirements
(b)
(i)A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation.
(ii)A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system and a sample extraction smoke detection system required in this Regulation and other Regulations in this part shall be of an approved type and comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(iii)Where a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system is required for the protection of spaces other than those specified in paragraph (e)(i), at least one detector complying with the Fire Safety Systems Code shall be installed in each such space.
Initial and periodical tests
(c)
(i)The function of fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems required by the relevant Regulations of this Chapter shall be tested under varying conditions of ventilation after installation.
(ii)The function of fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems shall be periodically tested to the satisfaction of the Director by means of equipment producing hot air at the appropriate temperature, or smoke or aerosol particles having the appropriate range of density or particle size, or other phenomena associated with incipient fires to which the detector is designed to respond.
Protection of machinery spaces
(d)
(i)
Installation
A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be installed in:
(1)periodically unattended machinery spaces; and
(2)machinery spaces where:
(A)the installation of automatic and remote control systems and equipment has been approved in lieu of continuous manning of the space; and
(B)the main propulsion and associated machinery including sources of the main sources of electrical power are provided with various degrees of automatic or remote control and are under continuous manned supervision from a control room.
(ii)DesignThe fixed fire detection and fire alarm system required in paragraph (d)(i) (1) shall be so designed and the detectors so positioned as to detect rapidly the onset of fire in any part of those spaces and under any normal conditions of operation of the machinery and variations of ventilation as required by the possible range of ambient temperatures. Except in spaces of restricted height and where their use is specially appropriate, detection systems using only thermal detectors shall not be permitted. The detection system shall initiate audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from the alarms of any other system not indicating fire, in sufficient places to ensure that the alarms are heard and observed on the navigating bridge and by a responsible engineer officer. When the navigating bridge is unmanned the alarm shall sound in a place where a responsible member of the crew is on duty.
Protection of accommodation and service spaces and control stations
(e)
(i)
Smoke detectors in accommodation spaces
Smoke detectors shall be installed in all stairways, corridors and escape routes within accommodation spaces as provided in paragraphs (e)(ii), (iii) and (iv). Consideration shall be given to the installation of special purpose smoke detectors within ventilation ducting.
(ii)Requirements for passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengersA fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in service spaces, control stations and accommodation spaces, including corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces. Smoke detectors need not be fitted in private bathrooms and galleys. Spaces having little or no fire risk such as voids, public toilets, carbon dioxide rooms and similar spaces need not be fitted with a fixed fire detection and alarm system.
(iii)Requirements for passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengersThere shall be installed throughout each separate zone, whether vertical or horizontal, in all accommodation and service spaces and, where it is considered necessary by the Director, in control stations, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc., either:
(1)a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system so installed and arranged as to detect the presence of fire in such spaces and providing smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces; or
(2)an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system of an approved type complying with the relevant requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code and so installed and arranged as to protect such spaces and, in addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system and so installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces.
(iv)Protection of atriums in passenger shipsThe entire main vertical zone containing the atrium shall be protected throughout with a smoke detection system.
(v)Cargo shipsAccommodation and service spaces and control stations of cargo ships shall be protected by a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system and/or an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system as follows depending on a protection method adopted in accordance with Regulation 9(b)(iii)(1).
(1)Method ICA fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in all corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces.
(2)Method IICAn automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system of an approved type complying with the relevant requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code shall be so installed and arranged as to protect accommodation spaces, galleys and other service spaces, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc. In addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in all corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces.
(3)Method IIICA fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so installed and arranged as to detect the presence of fire in all accommodation spaces and service spaces providing smoke detection in corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc. In addition, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system shall be so installed and arranged as to provide smoke detection in all corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces.
Protection of cargo spaces in passenger ships(f)A fixed fire detection and fire alarm system or a sample extraction smoke detection system shall be provided in any cargo space which, in the opinion of the Director, is not accessible, except where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Director that the ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply this requirement.Manually operated call points(g)Manually operated call points complying with the Fire Safety Systems Code shall be installed throughout the accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations. One manually operated call point shall be located at each exit. Manually operated call points shall be readily accessible in the corridors of each deck such that no part of the corridor is more than 20 m from a manually operated call point.Fire patrols in passenger ships(h)
(i)
Fire patrols
For ships carrying more than 36 passengers an efficient patrol system shall be maintained so that an outbreak of fire may be promptly detected. Each member of the fire patrol shall be trained to be familiar with the arrangements of the ship as well as the location and operation of any equipment he may be called upon to use.(ii)Inspection hatchesThe construction of ceiling and bulkheads shall be such that it will be possible, without impairing the efficiency of the fire protection, for the fire patrols to detect any smoke originating in concealed and inaccessible places, except where in the opinion of the Director there is no risk of fire originating in such places.(iii)Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus
Each member of the fire patrol shall be provided with a two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus.
Firm alarm signalling systems in passenger ships11
11  Refer to the Code of Alarms and Indicators adopted by the Organization by resolution A.830(19)
(i)
(i)Passenger ships shall at all times when at sea, or in port (except when out of service), be so manned or equipped as to ensure that any initial fire alarm is immediately received by a responsible member of the crew.
(ii)The control panel of fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems shall be designed on the fail-safe principle (e.g. an open detector circuit shall cause an alarm condition).
(iii)Passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers shall have the fire detection alarms for the systems required by paragraph (e)(ii) centralized in a continuously manned central control station. In addition, controls for remote closing of the fire doors and shutting down the ventilation fans shall be centralized in the same location. The ventilation fans shall be capable of reactivation by the crew at the continuously manned control station. The control panels in the central control station shall be capable of indicating open or closed positions of fire doors and closed or off status of the detectors, alarms and fans. The control panel shall be continuously powered and shall have an automatic change-over to standby power supply in case of loss of normal power supply. The control panel shall be powered from the main source of electrical power and the emergency source of electrical power defined by Regulation 42 of Chapter II-1 unless other arrangements are permitted by the Regulations, as applicable.
(iv)A special alarm, operated from the navigation bridge or fire control station, shall be fitted to summon the crew. This alarm may be part of the ship’s general alarm system and shall be capable of being sounded independently of the alarm to the passenger spaces.
Regulation 8
Control of Smoke Spread
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to control the spread of smoke in order to minimize the hazards from smoke. For this purpose, means for controlling smoke in atriums, control stations, machinery spaces and concealed spaces shall be provided.Protection of control stations outside machinery spaces(b)Practicable measures shall be taken for control stations outside machinery spaces in order to ensure that ventilation, visibility and freedom from smoke are maintained so that, in the event of fire, the machinery and equipment contained therein may be supervised and continue to function effectively. Alternative and separate means of air supply shall be provided and air inlets of the two sources of supply shall be so disposed that the risk of both inlets drawing in smoke simultaneously is minimized. At the discretion of the Director, such requirements need not apply to control stations situated on, and opening on to, an open deck or where local closing arrangements would be equally effective.Release of smoke from machinery spaces(c)
(i)The provisions of this paragraph shall apply to machinery spaces of category A and, where the Director considers desirable, to other machinery spaces.
(ii)Suitable arrangements shall be made to permit the release of smoke, in the event of fire, from the space to be protected, subject to the provisions of Regulation 9(e)(ii)(1). The normal ventilation systems may be acceptable for this purpose.
(iii)Means of control shall be provided for permitting the release of smoke and such controls shall be located outside the space concerned so that, in the event of fire, they will not be cut off from the space they serve.
(iv)In passenger ships, the controls required by paragraph (c)(iii) shall be situated at one control position or grouped in as few positions as possible to the satisfaction of the Director. Such positions shall have a safe access from the open deck.
Draught stops(d)Air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, panelling or linings shall be divided by close-fitting draught stops spaced not more than 14 m apart. In the vertical direction, such enclosed air spaces, including those behind linings of stairways, trunks, etc., shall be closed at each deck.Smoke extraction systems in atriums of passenger ships(e)Atriums shall be equipped with a smoke extraction system. The smoke extraction system shall be activated by the required smoke detection system and be capable of manual control. The fans shall be sized such that the entire volume within space can be exhausted in 10 min or less.
Regulation 9
Containment of Fire
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to contain a fire in the space of origin. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)the ship shall be subdivided by thermal and structural boundaries;
(ii)thermal insulation of boundaries shall have due regard to the fire risk of the space and adjacent spaces; and
(iii)the fire integrity of the divisions shall be maintained at openings and penetrations.
Thermal and structural boundaries(b)
(i)Thermal and structural subdivision
Ships of all types shall be subdivided into spaces by thermal and structural divisions having regard to the fire risks of the space.
(ii)Passenger ships
(1)Main vertical zones and horizontal zones
(A)(I) In ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the hull, superstructure and deckhouses shall be subdivided into main vertical zones by “A-60” class divisions. Steps and recesses shall be kept to a minimum, but where they are necessary they shall also be “A-60” class divisions. Where a category (5), (9) or (10) space defined in paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (B) (II) is on one side or where fuel oil tanks are on both sides of the division the standard may be reduced to “A-0”.
(A)(II) In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the hull, superstructure and deckhouses in way of accommodation and service spaces shall be subdivided into main vertical zones by “A” class divisions. These divisions shall have insulation values in accordance with tables in paragraph (b)(ii) (4).
(B)As far as practicable, the bulkheads forming the boundaries of the main vertical zones above the bulkhead deck shall be in line with watertight subdivision bulkheads situated immediately below the bulkhead deck. The length and width of main vertical zones may be extended to a maximum of 48 m in order to bring the ends of main vertical zones to coincide with watertight subdivision bulkheads or in order to accommodate a large public space extending for the whole length of the main vertical zone provided that the total area of the main vertical zone is not greater than 1,600 m2 on any deck. The length or width of a main vertical zone is the maximum distance between the furthermost points of the bulkheads bounding it.
(C)Such bulkheads shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries.
(D)Where a main vertical zone is subdivided by horizontal “A” class divisions into horizontal zones for the purpose of providing an appropriate barrier between a zone with sprinklers and a zone without sprinklers, the divisions shall extend between adjacent main vertical zone bulkheads and to the shell or exterior boundaries of the ship and shall be insulated in accordance with the fire insulation and integrity values given in table 9.4.
(E)(I) On ships designed for special purposes, such as automobile or railroad car ferries, where the provision of main vertical zone bulkheads would defeat the purpose for which the ship is intended, equivalent means for controlling and limiting a fire shall be substituted and specifically approved by the Director. Service spaces and ship stores shall not be located on ro-ro decks unless protected in accordance with the applicable Regulations.
(E)(II) However, in a ship with special category spaces, such spaces shall comply with the applicable provisions of Regulation 20 and where such compliance would be inconsistent with other requirements for passenger ships specified in this Chapter, the requirements of Regulation 20 shall prevail.
(2)Bulkheads within a main vertical zone
(A)For ships carrying more than 36 passengers, bulkheads which are not required to be “A” class divisions shall be at least “B” class or “C” class divisions as prescribed in the tables in paragraph (b)(ii) (3).
(B)For ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, bulkheads within accommodation and service spaces which are not required to be “A” class divisions shall be at least “B” class or “C” class divisions as prescribed in the tables in paragraph (b)(ii) (4). In addition, corridor bulkheads, where not required to be “A” class, shall be “B” class divisions which shall extend from deck to deck except:
(I)when continuous “B” class ceilings or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, the portion of the bulkhead behind the continuous ceiling or lining shall be of material which, in thickness and composition, is acceptable in the construction of “B” class divisions, but which shall be required to meet “B” class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Director; and
(II)in the case of a ship protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, the corridor bulkheads may terminate at a ceiling in the corridor provided such bulkheads and ceilings are of “B” class standard in compliance with paragraph (b)(ii) (4). All doors and frames in such bulkheads shall be of non-combustible materials and shall have the same fire integrity as the bulkhead in which they are fitted.
(C)Bulkheads required to be “B” class divisions, except corridor bulkheads as prescribed in paragraph (b)(ii) (2) (B), shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries. However, where a continuous “B” class ceiling or lining is fitted on both sides of a bulkhead which is at least of the same fire resistance as the adjoining bulkhead, the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining.
(3)Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks in ships carrying more than 36 passengers
(A)In addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks of passenger ships, the minimum fire integrity of all bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in tables 9.1 and 9.2. Where, due to any particular structural arrangements in the ship, difficulty is experienced in determining from the tables the minimum fire integrity value of any divisions, such values shall be determined to the satisfaction of the Director.
(B)The following requirements shall govern application of the tables:
(I)Table 9.1 shall apply to bulkheads not bounding either main vertical zones or horizontal zones. Table 9.2 shall apply to decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones;
(II)For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to boundaries between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories (1) to (14) below. Where the contents and use of a space are such that there is a doubt as to its classification for the purpose of this Regulation, or where it is possible to assign two or more classifications to a space, it shall be treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent boundary requirements. Smaller, enclosed rooms within a space that have less than 30% communicating openings to that space are considered separate spaces. The fire integrity of the boundary bulkheads and decks of such smaller rooms shall be as prescribed in tables 9.1 and 9.2. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the tables.
Control stations
(1)Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
Wheelhouse and chartroom.
Spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment.
Fire control stations.
Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the propulsion machinery space.
Spaces containing centralised fire alarm equipment.
Spaces containing centralised emergency public address system stations and equipment.
Stairways
(2)Interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks, and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) for passengers and crew and enclosures thereto.
In this connection a stairway which is enclosed at only one level shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
Corridors
(3)Passenger and crew corridors and lobbies.
Evacuation stations and external escape routes
(4)Survival craft stowage area.
Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades forming lifeboat and liferaft embarkation and lowering stations.
Assembly stations, internal and external.
External stairs and open decks used for escape routes.
The ship’s side to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, superstructure and deckhouse sides situated below and adjacent to the liferaft and evacuation slide embarkation areas.
Open deck spaces
(5)Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades clear of lifeboat and liferaft embarkation and lowering stations. To be considered in this category, enclosed promenades shall have no significant fire risk, meaning that furnishings shall be restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces shall be naturally ventilated by permanent openings.
Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).
Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk
(6)Cabins containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk.
Offices and dispensaries containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk.
Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk and having a deck area of less than 50 m2.
Accommodation spaces of moderate fire risk
(7)Spaces as in category (6) above but containing furniture and furnishings of other than restricted fire risk.
Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk and having a deck area of 50 m2 or more.
Isolated lockers and small storerooms in accommodation spaces having areas less than 4 m2 (in which flammable liquids are not stowed).
Sale shops. Motion picture projection and film stowage rooms. Diet kitchens (containing no open flame).
Cleaning gear lockers (in which flammable liquids are not stowed).
Laboratories (in which flammable liquids are not stowed).
Pharmacies.
Small drying rooms (having a deck area of 4 m2 or less).
Specie rooms.
Operating rooms.
Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk
(8)Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of other than restricted fire risk and having a deck area of 50 m2 or more.
Barber shops and beauty parlours.
Saunas.
Sanitary and similar spaces
(9)Communal sanitary facilities, showers, baths, water closets, etc.
Small laundry rooms.
Indoor swimming pool area.
Isolated pantries containing no cooking appliances in accommodation spaces.
Private sanitary facilities shall be considered a portion of the space in which they are located.
Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery spaces having little or no fire risk
(10)Water tanks forming part of the ship’s structure.
Voids and cofferdams.
Auxiliary machinery spaces which do not contain machinery having a pressure lubrication system and where storage of combustibles is prohibited, such as:
ventilation and air-conditioning rooms;windlass room;steering gear room;stabilizer equipment room;electrical propulsion motor room;rooms containing section switchboards and purely electrical equipment other than oil-filled electrical transformers (above 10 kVA);shaft alleys and pipe tunnels;spaces for pumps and refrigeration machinery (not handling or using flammable liquids).
Closed trunks serving the spaces listed above.
Other closed trunks such as pipe and cable trunks.
Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and other similar spaces of moderate fire risk
(11)Cargo oil tanks.
Cargo holds, trunkways and hatchways.
Refrigerated chambers.
Oil fuel tanks (where installed in a separate space with no machinery).
Shaft alleys and pipe tunnels allowing storage of combustibles.
Auxiliary machinery spaces as in category (10) which contain machinery having a pressure lubrication system or where storage of combustibles is permitted.
Oil fuel filling stations.
Spaces containing oil-filled electrical transformers (above 10 kVA).
Spaces containing turbine and reciprocating steam engine driven auxiliary generators and small internal combustion engines of power output up to 110 kW driving generators, sprinkler, drencher or fire pumps, bilge pumps, etc.
Closed trunks serving the spaces listed above.
Machinery spaces and main galleys
(12)Main propulsion machinery rooms (other than electric propulsion motor rooms) and boiler rooms.
Auxiliary machinery spaces other than those in categories (10) and (11) which contain internal combustion machinery or other oil-burning, heating or pumping units.
Main galleys and annexes.
Trunks and casings to the spaces listed above.
Storerooms, workshops, pantries, etc.
(13)Main pantries not annexed to galleys.
Main laundry.
Large drying rooms (having a deck area of more than 4 m2 ).
Miscellaneous stores.
Mail and baggage rooms.
Garbage rooms.
Workshops (not part of machinery spaces, galleys, etc.).
Lockers and storerooms having areas greater than 4 m2, other than those spaces that have provisions for the storage of flammable liquids.
Other spaces in which flammable liquids are stowed
(14)Paint lockers.
Storerooms containing flammable liquids (including dyes, medicines, etc.).
Laboratories (in which flammable liquids are stowed).
(III)Where a single value is shown for the fire integrity of a boundary between two spaces, that value shall apply in all cases;
(IV)Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(ii) (2) there are no special requirements for material or integrity of boundaries where only a dash appears in the tables; and
(V)The Director shall determine in respect of category (5) spaces whether the insulation values in table 9.1 shall apply to ends of deckhouses and superstructures, and whether the insulation values in table 9.2 shall apply to weather decks. In no case shall the requirements of category (5) of tables 9.1 or 9.2 necessitate enclosure of spaces which in the opinion of the Director need not be enclosed.
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
Notes: To be applied to tables 9.1 and 9.2.
 
 
 
a
 
Where adjacent spaces are in the same numerical category and superscript “a” appears, a bulkhead or deck between such spaces need not be fitted if deemed unnecessary by the Director. For example, in category (12) a bulkhead need not be required between a galley and its annexed pantries provided the pantry bulkhead and decks maintain the integrity of the galley boundaries. A bulkhead is, however, required between a galley and machinery space even though both spaces are in category (12).
 
 
 
b
 
The ship’s side, to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, superstructure and deckhouse sides situated below and adjacent to liferafts and evacuation slides may be reduced to “A-30”.
 
 
 
c
 
Where public toilets are installed completely within the stairway enclosure, the public toilet bulkhead within the stairway enclosure can be of “B” class integrity.
 
 
 
d
 
Where spaces of categories (6), (7), (8) and (9) are located completely within the outer perimeter of the assembly station, the bulkheads of these spaces are allowed to be of “B-0” class integrity. Control positions for audio, video and light installations may be considered as part of the assembly station.
(C)Continuous “B” class ceiling or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.
(D)Construction and arrangement of saunas
(I)The perimeter of the sauna shall be of “A” class boundaries and may include changing rooms, showers and toilets. The sauna shall be insulated to “A-60” standard against other spaces except those inside of the perimeter and spaces of catergories (5), (9) and (10).
(II)Bathrooms with direct access to saunas may be considered as part of them. In such cases, the door between sauna and the bathroom need not comply with fire safety requirements.
(III)The traditional wooden lining on the bulkheads and ceiling are permitted in the sauna. The ceiling above the oven shall be lined with a non-combustible plate with an air gap of at least 30 mm. The distance from the hot surfaces to combustible materials shall be at least 500 mm or the combustible materials shall be protected (e.g. non-combustible plate with an air gap of at least 30 mm).
(IV)The traditional wooden benches are permitted to be used in the sauna.
(V)The sauna door shall open outwards by pushing.
(VI)Electrically heated ovens shall be provided with a timer.
(4)Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks in ships carrying not more than 36 passengers
(A)In addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks of passenger ships, the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in tables 9.3 and 9.4.
(B)The following requirements govern application of the tables:
(I)Tables 9.3 and 9.4 shall apply respectively to the bulkheads and decks separating adjacent spaces;
(II)For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories (1) to (11) below. Where the contents and use of a space are such that there is a doubt as to its classification for the purpose of this Regulation, or where it is possible to assign two or more classifications to a space, it shall be treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent boundary requirements. Smaller, enclosed rooms within a space that have less than 30% communicating openings to that space are considered separate spaces. The fire integrity of the boundary bulkheads and decks of such smaller rooms shall be as prescribed in tables 9.3 and 9.4. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the tables.
Control stations
(1)Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
Wheelhouse and chartroom.
Spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment.
Fire control stations.
Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the machinery space.
Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
Corridors
(2)Passenger and crew corridors and lobbies.
Accommodation spaces
(3)Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(a) excluding corridors.
Stairways
(4)Interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks, and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) and enclosures thereto.
In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
Service spaces (low risk)
(5)Lockers and storerooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable liquids and having areas less than 4 m2 and drying rooms and laundries.
(6)Machinery spaces of Category A
Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(ee).
Other machinery spaces
(7)Electrical equipment rooms (auto-telephone exchange, air-conditioning duct spaces).
Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(dd) excluding machinery spaces of Category A.
Cargo spaces
(8)All spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and trunkways and hatchways to such spaces, other than special category spaces.
Service spaces (high risk)
(9)Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, paint and lamp rooms, lockers and storerooms having areas of 4 m2 or more, spaces for the storage of flammable liquids, saunas and workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces.
Open decks
(10)Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having little or no fire risk. Enclosed promenades should have no significant fire risk, meaning that furnishing should be restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces should be naturally ventilated by permanent openings. Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).
Special category and ro-ro spaces
(11)Spaces as defined in Regulations 3 (oo) and 3 (tt);
(III)In determining the applicable fire integrity standard of a boundary between two spaces within a main vertical zone or horizontal zone which is not protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code or between such zones neither of which is so protected, the higher of the two values given in the tables shall apply; and
(IV)In determining the applicable fire integrity standard of a boundary between two spaces within a main vertical zone or horizontal zone which is protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code or between such zones both of which are so protected, the lesser of the two values given in the tables shall apply. Where a zone with sprinklers and a zone without sprinklers meet within accommodation and service spaces, the higher of the two values given in the tables shall apply to the division between the zones.
(C)Continuous “B” class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing, wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.
(D)External boundaries which are required in Regulation 11(b) to be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the fitting of windows and sidescuttles provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries of passenger ships to have “A” class integrity. Similarly, in such boundaries which are not required to have “A” class integrity, doors may be constructed of materials which are to the satisfaction of the Director.
(E)Saunas shall comply with paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (D).
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
Notes: To be applied to both tables 9.3 and 9.4 as appropriate.
a
 
For clarification as to which applies, see paragraphs (b) (ii) (2) and (b) (ii) (5).
b
 
Where spaces are of the same numerical category and superscript b appears, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, (e.g. in category (9)). A galley next to a galley does not require a bulkhead but a galley next to a paint room requires an “A-0” bulkhead.
c
 
Bulkhead separating the wheelhouse and chartroom from each other may have a “B-0” rating.
d
 
See paragraphs (b) (ii) (4) (B) (III) and (b) (ii) (4) (B) (IV).
e
 
For the application of paragraph (b) (ii) (1) (A) (II), “B-0” and “C”, where appearing in table 9.3, shall be read as “A-0”.
f
 
Fire insulation need not be fitted if the machinery space in category (7), in the opinion of the Director, has little or no fire risk.
Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent material, but is not required to be of “A” class standard. However, where a deck, except in a category (10) space, is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such penetrations should be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisions between control stations (emergency generators) and open decks may have air intake openings without means for closure, unless a fixed gas fire-fighting system is fitted.
For the application of paragraph (b)(ii) (1) (A) (II), an asterisk, where appearing in table 9.4, except for categories (8) and (10), shall be read as “A-0”.
(5)Protection of stairways and lifts in accommodation area
(A)Stairways shall be within enclosures formed of “A” class divisions, with positive means of closure at all openings, except that:
(I)a stairway connecting only two decks need not be enclosed, provided the integrity of the deck is maintained by proper bulkheads or self-closing doors in one ‘tween-deck space. When a stairway is closed in one ‘tween-deck space, the stairway enclosure shall be protected in accordance with the tables for decks in paragraphs (b)(ii) (3) or (b)(ii) (4); and
(II)stairways may be fitted in the open in a public space, provided they lie wholly within the public space.
(B)Lift trunks shall be so fitted as to prevent the passage of smoke and flame from one ‘tween-deck to another and shall be provided with means of closing so as to permit the control of draught and smoke. Machinery for lifts located within stairway enclosures shall be arranged in a separate room, surrounded by steel boundaries, except that small passages for lift cables are permitted. Lifts which open into spaces other than corridors, public spaces, special category spaces, stairways and external areas shall not open into stairways included in the means of escape.
(iii)Cargo ships except tankers
(1)Methods of protection in accommodation area
(A)One of the following methods of protection shall be adopted in accommodation and service spaces and control stations:
Method IC
(I)The construction of internal divisional bulkheads of non-combustible “B” or “C” class divisions generally without the installation of an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systtem in the accommodation and service spaces, except as required by Regulation 7(e)(5)(A); or
Method IIC
(II)The fitting of an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system as required by Regulation 7(e)(5)(B) for the detection and extinction of fire in all spaces in which fire might be expected to originate, generally with no restriction on the type of internal divisional bulkheads; or
Method IIIC
(III)The fitting of a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system as required by Regulation 7(e)(5)(C), in spaces in which a fire might be expected to originate, generally with no restriction on the type of internal divisional bulkheads, except that in no case must the area of any accommodation space or spaces bounded by an “A” or “B” class division exceed 50m2. Consideration may be given by the Director to increasing this area for public spaces.
(B)The requirements for the use of non-combustible materials in the construction and insulation of boundary bulkheads of machinery spaces, control stations, service spaces, etc., and the protection of the above stairway enclosures and corridors will be common to all three methods outlined in paragraph (b)(iii) (A) (I).
(2)Bulkheads within accommodation area
(A)Bulkheads required to be “B” class divisions shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries. However, where a continuous “B” class ceiling or lining is fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining.
Method IC
(B)Bulkheads not required by this or other Regulations for cargo ships to be “A” or “B” class divisions, shall be of at least “C” class construction.
Method IIC
(C)There shall be no restriction on the construction of bulkheads not required by this or other Regulations for cargo ships to be “A” or “B” class divisions except in individual cases where “C” class bulkheads are required in accordance with table 9.5.
Method IIIC
(D)There shall be no restriction on the construction of bulkheads not required for cargo ships to be “A” or “B” class divisions except that the area of any accommodation space or spaces bounded by a continuous “A” or “B” class division must in no case exceed 50 m2, except in individual cases where “C” class bulkheads are required in accordance with table 9.5. Consideration may be given by the Director to increasing this area for public spaces.
(3)Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks
(A)In addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks of cargo ships, the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in tables 9.5 and 9.6.
(B)The following requirements shall govern application of the tables:
(I)Tables 9.5 and 9.6 shall apply respectively to the bulkheads and decks separating adjacent spaces;
(II)For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories (1) to (11) below. Where the contents and use of a space are such that there is a doubt as to its classification for the purpose of this Regulation, or where it is possible to assign two or more classifications to a space, it shall be treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent boundary requirements. Smaller, enclosed rooms within a space that have less than 30% communicating openings to that space are considered separate spaces. The fire integrity of the boundary bulkheads and decks of such smaller rooms shall be as prescribed in tables 9.5 and 9.6. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the tables;
Control stations
(1)Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
Wheelhouse and chartroom.
Spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment.
Fire control stations.
Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the machinery space.
Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
Corridors
(2)Corridors and lobbies.
Accommodation spaces
(3)Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(a), excluding corridors.
Stairways
(4)Interior stairway, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks, and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) and enclosures thereto.
In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
Service spaces (low risk)
(5)Lockers and storerooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable liquids and having areas less than 4 m2 and drying rooms and laundries.
Machinery spaces of Category A
(6)Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(ee).
Other machinery spaces
(7)Electrical equipment rooms (auto-telephone exchange, air-conditioning duct spaces).
Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(dd) excluding machinery spaces of Category A.
Cargo spaces
(8)All spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and trunkways and hatchways to such spaces.
Service spaces (high risk)
(9)Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, saunas, paint lockers and storerooms having areas of 4 m2 or more, spaces for the storage of flammable liquids, and workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces.
Open decks
(10)Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having little or no fire risk. To be considered in this category, enclosed promenades shall have no significant fire risk, meaning that furnishings shall be restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces shall be naturally ventilated by permanent openings.
Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).
Ro-ro and vehicle spaces
(11)Ro-ro spaces as defined in Regulation 3(oo).
Vehicle spaces as defined in Regulation 3(ww).
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
Notes: To be applied to tables 9.5 and 9.6 as appropriate.
a
 
No special requirements are imposed upon bulkheads in Methods IIC and IIIC fire protection.
b
 
In case of Method IIIC “B” class bulkheads of “B-0” rating shall be provided between spaces or groups of spaces of 50 m2 and over in area.
c
 
For clarification as to which applies, see paragraphs (b) (iii) (2) and (b) (iii) (4).
d
 
Where spaces are of the same numerical category and superscript d appear, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose (e.g. in category (9)). A galley next to a galley does not require a bulkhead but a galley next to a paint room requires an “A-0” bulkhead.
e
 
Bulkheads separating the wheelhouse, chartroom and radio room from each other may have a “B-0” rating.
f
 
An “A-0” rating may be used if no dangerous goods are intended to be carried or if such goods are stowed not less than 3 m horizontally from such a bulkhead.
g
 
For cargo spaces in which dangerous goods are intended to be carried, Regulation 19(c)(viii) applies.
h
 
Bulkheads and decks separating ro-ro spaces shall be capable of being closed reasonably gas tight and such divisions shall have “A” class integrity in so far as reasonable and practicable, if in the opinion of the Director it has little or no fire risk.
i
 
Fire insulation need not be fitted if the machinery in category (7), in the opinion of the Director, it has little or no fire risk.
  Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent material but is not required to be of “A” class standard. However, where a deck, except an open deck, is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such penetrations should be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisons between control stations (emergency generators) and open decks may have air intake opening without means for closure, unless a fixed gas fire-fighting system is fitted.
(C)Continuous “B” class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing, wholly or part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.
(D)External boundaries which are required in Regulation 11(b) to be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the fitting of windows and sidescuttles provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries of cargo ships to have “A” class integrity. Similarly, in such boundaries which are not required to have “A” class integrity, doors may be constructed of materials which are to the satisfaction of the Director.
(E)Saunas shall comply with paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (D).
(4)Protection of stairways and lift trunks in accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations
(A)Stairways which penetrate only a single deck shall be protected, at a minimum, at one level by at least “B-0” class divisions and self-closing doors. Lifts which penetrate only a single deck shall be surrounded by “A-0” class divisions with steel doors at both levels. Stairways and lift trunks which penetrate more than a single deck shall be surrounded by at least “A-0” class divisions and be protected by self-closing doors at all levels.
(B)On ships having accommodation for 12 persons or less, where stairways penetrate more than a single deck and where there are at least two escape routes direct to the open deck at every accommodation level, the “A-0” requirements of paragraph (b)(iii) (4) (A) may be reduced to “B-0”.
(iv)Tankers
(1)Application
For tankers, only Method IC as defined in paragraph (b)(iii) (1) (A) shall be used.
(2)Fire integrity of bulkheads and decks
(A)In lieu of paragraph (b)(iii) and in addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks of tankers, the minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in tables 9.7 and 9.8.
(B)The following requirements shall govern application of the tables:
(I)Tables 9.7 and 9.8 shall apply respectively to the bulkhead and decks separating adjacent spaces;
(II)For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories (1) to (10) below. Where the contents and use of a space are such that there is a doubt as to its classification for the purpose of this Regulation, or where it is possible to assign two or more classifications to a space, it shall be treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent boundary requirements. Smaller, enclosed areas within a space that have less than 30% communicating openings to that space are considered separate areas. The fire integrity of the boundary bulkheads and decks of such smaller spaces shall be as prescribed in tables 9.7 and 9.8. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the tables;
Control stations
(1)Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.
Wheelhouse and chartroom.
Spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment.
Fire control stations.
Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the machinery space.
Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
Corridors
(2)Corridors and lobbies.
Accommodation spaces
(3)Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(a), excluding corridors.
Stairways
(4)Interior stairways, lifts, totally enclosed emergency escape trunks, and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) and enclosures thereto.
In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
Service spaces (low risk)
(5)Lockers and storerooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable liquids and having areas less than 4 m2 and drying rooms and laundries.
Machinery spaces of Category A
(6)Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(ee).
Other machinery spaces
(7)Electrical equipment rooms (auto-telephone exchange and air-conditioning duct spaces).
Spaces as defined in Regulation 3(dd) excluding machinery spaces of Category A.
Cargo pump-rooms
(8)Spaces containing cargo pumps and entrances and trunks to such spaces.
Service spaces (high risk)
(9)Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, saunas, paint lockers and storerooms having areas of 4 m2 or more, spaces for the storage of flammable liquids and workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces.
Open decks
(10)Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades having little or no fire risk. To be considered in this category, enclosed promenades shall have no significant fire risk, meaning that furnishings shall be restricted to deck furniture. In addition, such spaces shall be naturally ventilated by permanent openings.
Air spaces (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).
(C)Continuous “B” class ceiling or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing, wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.
(D)External boundaries which are required in Regulation 11(b) to be of steel or other equivalent material may be pierced for the fitting of windows and sidescuttles provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries of tankers to have “A” class integrity. Similarly, in such boundaries which are not required to have “A” class integrity, doors may be constructed of materials which are to the satisfaction of the Director.
(E)Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses enclosing accommodation and including any overhanging decks which support such accommodation, shall be constructed of steel and insulated to “A-60” standard for the whole of the portions which face the cargo area and on the outward sides for a distance of 3 m from the end boundary facing the cargo area. The distance of 3 m shall be measured horizontally and parallel to the middle line of the ship from the boundary which faces the cargo area at each deck level. In the case of the sides of those superstructures and deckhouses, such insulation shall be carried up to the underside of the deck of the navigation bridge.
(F)Skylights to cargo pump-rooms shall be of steel, shall not contain any glass and shall be capable of being closed from outside the pump-room.
(G)Construction and arrangement of saunas shall comply with paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (D).
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
Notes: To be applied to tables 9.7 and 9.8 as appropriate.
 
 
 
a
 
For clarification as to which applies, see paragraphs (b) (iii) (2) and (b) (iii) (4).
 
 
 
b
 
Where spaces are of the same numerical category and superscript b appears, a bulkhead or deck of the rating shown in the tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purposes (e.g. in category (9)). A galley next to a galley does not require a bulkhead but a galley next to a paint room requires an “A-0” bulkhead.
 
 
 
c
 
Bulkheads separating the wheelhouse, chartroom and radio room from each other may have a “B-0” rating.
 
 
 
d
 
Bulkheads and decks between cargo pump-rooms and machinery spaces of Category A may be penetrated by cargo pump shaft glands and similar gland penetrations, provided that gas tight seals with efficient lubrication or other means of ensuring the permanence of the gas seal are fitted in way of the bulkheads or deck.
 
 
 
e
 
Fire insulation need not be fitted if the machinery space in category (7), in the opinion of the Director, it has little or no fire risk.
  Where an asterisk appears in the table, the division is required to be of steel or other equivalent material, but is not required to be of “A” class standard. However, where a deck, except an open deck, is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes and vent ducts, such penetrations should be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke. Divisions between control stations (emergency generators) and open decks may have air intake openings without means for closure, unless a fixed gas fire-fighting system is fitted.
Penetration in fire-resisting divisions and prevention of heat transmission
(c)
(i)Where “A” class divisions are penetrated, such penetrations shall be tested in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code, subject to the provisions of paragraph (d)(i) (1) (E). In the case of ventilation ducts, paragraphs (g)(i) (2) and (g)(iii) (1) apply. However, where a pipe penetration is made of steel or equivalent material having a thickness of 3 mm or greater and a length of not less than 900 mm (preferably 450 mm on each side of the division), and no openings, testing is not required. Such penetrations shall be suitably insulated by extension of the insulation at the same level of the division.
(ii)Where “B” class divisions are penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or for the fitting of ventilation terminals, lighting fixtures and similar devices, arrangements shall be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired, subject to the provisions of paragraph (g)(iii) (2). Pipes other than steel or copper that penetrate “B” class divisions shall be protected by either:
(1)a fire tested penetration device, suitable for the fire resistance of the division pierced and the type of pipe used; or
(2)a steel sleeve, having a thickness of not less than 1.8 mm and a length of not less than 900 mm for pipe diameters of 150 mm or more and not less than 600 mm for pipe diameters of less than 150 mm (preferably equally divided to each side of the division). The pipe shall be connected to the ends of the sleeve by flanges or couplings; or the clearance between the sleeve and the pipe shall not exceed 2.5 mm; or any clearance between pipe and sleeve shall be made tight by means of non-combustible or other suitable material.
(iii)Uninsulated metallic pipes penetrating “A” or “B” class divisions shall be of materials having a melting temperature which exceeds 950ºC for “A-0” and 850ºC for “B-0” class divisions.
(iv)In approving structural fire protection details, the Director shall have regard to the risk of heat transmission at intersections and terminal points of required thermal barriers. The insulation of a deck or bulkhead shall be carried past the penetration, intersection or terminal point for a distance of at least 450 mm in the case of steel and aluminium structures. If a space is divided with a deck or a bulkhead of “A” class standard having insulation of different values, the insulation with the higher value shall continue on the deck or bulkhead with the insulation of the lesser value for a distance of at least 450 mm.
Protection of openings in fire-resisting divisions
(d)
(i)Openings in bulkheads and decks in passenger ships
(1)Opening in “A” class divisions
(A)Except for hatches between cargo, special category, store, and baggage spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, openings shall be provided with permanently attached means of closing which shall be at least as effective for resisting fires as the divisions in which they are fitted.
(B)The construction of doors and door frames in “A” class divisions, with the means of securing them when closed, shall provide resistance to fire as well as to the passage of smoke and flame equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the doors are situated, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code. Such doors and door frames shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. Watertight doors need not be insulated.
(C)It shall be possible for each door to be opened and closed from each side of the bulkhead by one person only.
(D)Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads, galley boundaries and stairway enclosures other than power-operated watertight doors and those which are normally locked, shall satisfy the following requirements:
(I)the doors shall be self-closing and be capable of closing with an angle of inclination of up to 3.5º opposing closure;
(II)the approximate time of closure for hinged fire doors shall be no more than 40 s and no less than 10 s from the beginning of their movement with the ship in upright position. The approximate uniform rate of closure for sliding doors shall be of no more than 0.2 m/s and no less than 0.1 m/s with the ship in upright position;
(III)the doors, except those for emergency escape trunks, shall be capable of remote release from the continuously manned central control station, either simultaneously or in groups and shall be capable of release also individually from a position at both sides of the door. Release switches shall have an on-off function to prevent automatic resetting of the system;
(IV)hold-back hooks not subject to central control station release are prohibited;
(V)a door closed remotely from the central control station shall be capable of being re-opened from both sides of the door by local control. After such local opening, the door shall automatically close again;
(VI)indication must be provided at the fire door indicator panel in the continuously manned central control station whether each door is closed;
(VII)the release mechanism shall be so designed that the door will automatically close in the event of disruption of the control system or central power supply;
(VIII)local power accumulators for power-operated doors shall be provided in the immediate vicinity of the doors to enable the doors to be operated after disruption of the control system or central power supply at least ten times (fully opened and closed) using the local controls;
(IX)disruption of the control system or central power supply at one door shall not impair the safe functioning of the other doors;
(X)remote-released sliding or power-operated doors shall be equipped with an alarm that sounds at least 5 s but no more than 10 s after the door being released from the central control station and before the door begins to move and continues sounding until the door is completely closed;
(XI)a door designed to re-open upon contacting an object in its path shall re-open not more than 1 m from the point of contact;
(XII)double-leaf doors equipped with a latch necessary for their fire integrity shall have a latch that is automatically activated by the operation of the doors when released by the system;
(XIII)doors giving direct access to special category spaces which are power-operated and automatically closed need not be equipped with the alarms and remote-release mechanisms required in paragraphs (d)(i) (1) (D) (III) and (d)(i) (1) (D) (X);
(XIV)the components of the local control system shall be accessible for maintenance and adjusting;
(XV)power-operated doors shall be provided with a control system of an approved type which shall be able to operate in case of fire and be in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code. This system shall satisfy the following requirements:
(1)the control system shall be able to operate the door at the temperature of at least 200°C for at least 60 min, served by the power supply;
(2)the power supply for all other doors not subject to fire shall not be impaired; and
(3)at temperatures exceeding 200°C the control system shall be automatically isolated from the power supply and shall be capable of keeping the door closed up to at least 945°C.
(E)In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, where a space is protected by an automatic sprinkler fire detection and alarm system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code or fitted with a continuous “B” class ceiling, openings in decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones shall be closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet the “A” class integrity requirements in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Director.
(F)The requirements for “A” class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles, provided that there is no requirement for such boundaries to have “A” class integrity in paragraph (d)(i) (3) (C). The requirements for “A” class integrity of the outer boundaries of the ship shall not apply to exterior doors, except for those in superstructures and deckhouses facing lifesaving appliances, embarkation and external assembly station areas, external stairs and open decks used for escape routes. Stairway enclosure doors need not meet thise requirement.
(G)Except for watertight doors, weathertight doors (semi-watertight doors), doors leading to the open deck and doors which need to be reasonably gas tight, all “A” class doors located in stairways, public spaces and main vertical zone bulkheads in escape routes shall be equipped with a self-closing hose port of material, construction and fire resistence which is equivalent to the door into which it is fitted, and shall be a 150 mm square clear opening with the door closed and shall be inset into the lower edge of the door, opposite the door hinges or, in the case of sliding doors, nearest the opening.
(H)Where it is necessary that a ventilation duct passes through a main vertical zone division, a fail-safe automatic closing fire damper shall be fitted adjacent to the division. The damper shall also be capable of being manually closed from each side of the division. The operating position shall be readily accessible and be marked in red light-reflecting colour. The duct between the division and the damper shall be of steel or other equivalent material and, if necessary, insulated to comply with the requirements of paragraph (c)(i). The damper shall be fitted on at least one side of the division with a visible indicator showing whether the damper is in the open position.
(2)Openings in “B” class divisions
(A)Doors and door frames in “B” class divisions and means of securing them shall provide a method of closure which shall have resistance to fire equivalent to that of the divisions, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code except that ventilation openings may be permitted in the lower portion of such doors. Where such opening is in or under a door the total net area of any such opening or openings shall not exceed 0.05m2. Alternatively, a non-combustible air balance duct routed between the cabin and the corridor, and located below the sanitary unit is permitted where the cross-sectional area of the duct does not exceed 0.05 m2. All ventilation openings shall be fitted with a grille made of non-combustible material. Doors shall be non-combustible.
(B)Cabin doors in “B” class divisions shall be of a self-closing type. Hold-back hooks are not permitted.
(C)The requirements for “B” class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles. Similarly, the requirements for “B” class integrity shall not apply to exterior doors in superstructures and deckhouses. For ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the Director may permit the use of combustible materials in doors separating cabins from the individual interior sanitary spaces such as showers.
(D)In ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, where an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code is fitted:
(I)openings in decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones shall be closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet the “B” class integrity requirements in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Director; and
(II)openings in corridor bulkheads of “B” class materials shall be protected in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(ii) (2).
(3)Windows and sidescuttles
(A)Windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads within accommodation and service spaces and control stations other than those to which the provisions of paragraph (d)(i) (1) (F) and of paragraph (d)(i) (2) (C) apply, shall be so constructed as to preserve the integrity requirements of the type of bulkheads in which they are fitted, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code.
(B)Notwithstanding the requirements of tables 9.1 to 9.4, windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads separating accommodation and service spaces and control stations from the weather shall be constructed with frames of steel or other suitable material. The glass shall be retained by a metal glazing bead or angle.
(C)Windows facing life-saving appliances, embarkation and assembly stations, external stairs and open decks used for escape routes, and windows situated below liferaft and escape slide embarkation areas shall have fire integrity as required in table 9.1. Where automatic dedicated sprinkler heads are provided for windows, “A-0” windows may be accepted as equivalent. To be considered under this paragraph, the sprinkler heads must be either be:
(I)dedicated heads located above the windows, and installed in addition to the conventional ceiling sprinklers; or
(II)conventional ceiling sprinkler heads arranged such that the window is protected by an average application rate of at least 5 l/m2 and the additional window area is included in the calculation of the area of coverage.
Windows located in the ship’s side below the lifeboat embarkation area shall have fire integrity at least equal to “A-0” class.
(ii)Doors in fire-resisting divisions in cargo ships
(1)The fire resistance of doors shall be equivalent to that of the division in which they are fitted, this being determined in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code. Doors and door frames in “A” class divisions shall be constructed of steel. Doors in “B” class divisions shall be non-combustible. Doors fitted in boundary bulkheads of machinery spaces of category A shall be reasonably gas tight and self-closing. In ships constructed according to Method IC, the Director may permit the use of combustible materials in doors separating cabins from individual interior sanitary accommodation such as showers.
(2)Doors required to be self-closing shall not be fitted with hold-back hooks. However, hold-back arrangements fitted with remote release devices of the fail-safe type may be utilized.
(3)In corridor bulkheads ventilation openings may be permitted in and under the doors of cabins and public spaces. Ventilation openings are also permitted in “B” class doors leading to lavatories, offices, pantries, lockers and storerooms. Except as permitted below, the openings shall be provided only in the lower half of a door. Where such an opening is in or under a door the total net area of any such opening or openings shall not exceed 0.05m2. Alternatively, a non-combustible air balance duct routed between the cabin and the corridor, and located below the sanitary unit is permitted where the cross-sectional area of the duct does not exceed 0.05m2. Ventilation openings, except those under the door, shall be fitted with a grille made of non-combustible material.
(4)Watertight doors need not be insulated.
Protection of openings in machinery spaces boundaries
(e)
(i)Application
(1)The provision of this paragraph shall apply to machinery spaces of Category A and, where the Director considers it desirable, to other machinery spaces.
(ii)Protection of openings in machinery space boundaries
(1)The number of skylights, doors, ventilators, openings in funnels to permit exhaust ventilation and other openings to machinery spaces shall be reduced to a minimum consistent with the needs of ventilation and the proper and safe working of the ship.
(2)Skylights shall be of steel and shall not contain glass panels.
(3)Means of control shall be provided for closing power-operated doors or actuating release mechanisms on doors other than power-operated watertight doors. The control shall be located outside the space concerned, where they will not be cut off in the event of fire in the space it serves.
(4)In passenger ships, the means of control required in paragraph (e)(ii) (3) shall be situated at one control position or grouped in as few positions as possible to the satisfaction of the Director. Such positions shall have safe access from the open deck.
(5)In passenger ships, doors other than power-operated watertight doors shall be so arranged that positive closure is assured in case of fire in the space by power-operated closing arrangements or by the provision of self-closing doors capable of closing against an inclination of 3.5° opposing closure, and having a fail-safe hold-back arrangement, provided with a remotely operated release device. Doors for emergency escape trunks need not be fitted with a fail-safe hold-back facility and a remotely operated release device.
(6)Windows shall not be fitted in machinery space boundaries. However, this does not preclude the use of glass in control rooms within the machinery spaces.
Protection of cargo space boundaries
(f)
(i)In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the boundary bulkheads and decks of special category and ro-ro spaces shall be insulated to “A-60” class standard. However, where a category (5), (9) or (10) space, as defined in paragraph (b)(ii) (3), is on one side of the division the standard may be reduced to “A-0”. Where fuel oil tanks are below a special category space, the integrity of the deck between such spaces may be reduced to “A-0” standard.
(ii)In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, the boundary bulkheads of special category spaces shall be insulated as required for category (11) spaces in table 9.3 and the horizontal boundaries as required for category (11) spaces in table 9.4.
(iii)In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers the boundary bulkheads and decks of closed and open ro-ro spaces shall have a fire integrity as required for category (8) spaces in table 9.3 and the horizontal boundaries as required for category (8) spaces in table 9.4.
(iv)In passenger ships, indicators shall be provided on the navigating bridge which shall indicate when any fire door leading to or from the special category spaces is closed.
(v)In tankers, for the protection of cargo tanks carrying crude oil and petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60°C, materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for valves, fittings, tank opening covers, cargo vent piping, and cargo piping so as to prevent the spread of fire to the cargo.
Ventilation systems
(g)
(i)Duct and dampers
(1)Ventilation ducts shall be of non-combustible material. However, short ducts, not generally exceeding 2 m in length and with a free cross-sectional area1112 not exceeding 0.02 m2, need not be non-combustible subject to the following conditions:
12  The term “free cross-sectional area” means, even in the case of a pre-insulated duct, the area calculated on the basis of the inner diameter of the duct.
(A)the ducts are made of a material which has low flame spread characteristics;
(B)the ducts are only used at the end of the ventilation device; and
(C)the ducts are not situated less than 600 mm, measured along the duct, from an opening in an “A” or “B” class division including continuous “B” class ceiling.
(2)The following arrangements shall be tested in accordance with the Fire Test Procedures Code:
(A)fire dampers, including their relevant means of operation; and
(B)duct penetrations through “A” class divisions. However, the test is not required when steel sleeves are directly joined to ventilation ducts by means of riveted or screwed flanges or by welding.
(ii)Arrangement of ducts
(1)The ventilation systems for machinery spaces of Category A, vehicle spaces, ro-ro spaces, galleys, special category spaces and cargo spaces shall, in general, be separated from each other and from the ventilation systems serving other spaces. Except that the galley ventilation systems on cargo ships of less than 4,000 tons and in passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, need not be completely separated, but may be served by separate ducts from a ventilation unit serving other spaces. In any case, an automatic fire damper shall be fitted in the galley ventilation duct near the ventilation unit. Ducts provided for the ventilation of machinery spaces of Category A, galleys, vehicle spaces, ro-ro spaces or special category spaces shall not pass through accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations unless they comply with the conditions specified in paragraphs (g)(ii) (1) (A) (I) to (g)(ii) (1) (A) (IV) or (g)(ii) (1) (B) (I) and (g)(ii) (1) (B) (II) below:
(A)(I) the ducts are constructed of steel having a thickness of at least 3 mm and 5 mm for ducts the widths or diameters of which are up to and including 300 mm and 760 mm and over respectively and, in the case of such ducts, the widths or diameters of which are between 300 mm and 760 mm having a thickness obtained by interpolation;
(A)(II) the ducts are suitably supported and stiffened;
(A)(III) the ducts are fitted with automatic fire dampers close to the boundaries penetrated; and
(A)(IV) the ducts are insulated to “A-60” class standard from the macinery spaces, galleys, vehicle spaces, ro-ro spaces or special category spaces to a point at least 5 m beyond each fire damper; or
(B)(I) the ducts are constructed of steel in accordance with paragraphs (g)(ii) (1) (A) (I) and (g)(ii) (1) (A) (II); and
(B)(II) the ducts are insulated to “A-60” class standard throughout the accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations;
except that penetrations of main zone divisions shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (d)(i) (1) (H).
(2)Ducts provided for ventilation to accommodation spaces, service spaces or control stations shall not pass through machinery spaces of Category A, galleys, vehicle spaces, ro-ro spaces or special category spaces unless they comply with the conditions specified in paragraphs (g)(ii) (2) (A) (I) to (A) (III) or (g)(ii) (2) (B) (I) and (B) (II) below:
(A)(I) the ducts where they pass through a machinery space of Category A, galley, vehicle space, ro-ro space or special category space are constructed of steel in accordance with paragraphs (g)(ii) (1) (A) (I) and (A) (II);
(A)(II) automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries penetrated; and
(A)(III) the integrity of the machinery space, galley, vehicle space, ro-ro space or special category space boundaries is maintained at the penetrations; or
(B)(I) the ducts where they pass through a machinery space of Category A, galley, vehicle space, ro-ro space or special category space are constructed of steel in accordance with paragraphs (g)(ii) (1) (A) (I) and (A) (II); and
(B)(II) the ducts are insulated to “A-60” standard within the machinery space, galley, vehicle space, ro-ro space or special category space;
except that penetrations of main zone divisions shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (d)(i) (1) (H).
(iii)Details of duct penetrations
(1)Where a thin plated duct with a free cross-sectional area equal to, or less than, 0.02 m2 passes through “A” class bulkheads or decks, the opening shall be lined with a steel sheet sleeve having a thickness of at least 3 mm and a length of at least 200 mm, divided preferably into 100 mm on each side of the bulkhead or, in the case of the deck, wholly laid on the lower side of the decks pierced. Where ventilation ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02 m2 pass through “A” class bulkheads or decks, the openings shall be lined with a steel sheet sleeve. However, where such ducts are of steel construction and pass through a deck or bulkhead, the ducts and sleeves shall comply with the following:
(A)The sleeves shall have a thickness of at least 3 mm and a length of at least 900 mm. When passing through bulkheads, this length shall be divided preferably into 450 mm on each side of the bulkhead. These ducts, or sleeves lining such ducts, shall be provided with fire insulation. The insulation shall have at least the same fire integrity as the bulkhead or deck through which the duct passes; and
(B)Ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.075 m2 shall be fitted with fire dampers in addition to the requirements of paragraph (g)(iii) (1) (A). The fire damper shall operate automatically, but shall also be capable of being closed manually from both sides of the bulkhead or deck. The damper shall be provided with an indicator which shows whether the damper is open or closed. Fire dampers are not required, however, where ducts pass through spaces surrounded by “A” class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided those ducts have the same fire integrity as the divisions which they pierce. Fire dampers shall be easily accessible. Where they are placed behind ceilings or linings, these ceilings or linings shall be provided with an inspection door on which a plate reporting the identification number of the fire damper is provided. The fire damper identification number shall also be placed on any remote controls required.
(2)Ventilation ducts with a free cross-sectional area exceeding 0.02 m2 passing through “B” class bulkheads shall be lined with steel sheet sleves of 900 mm in length divided preferably into 450 mm on each side of the bulkheads unless the duct is of steel for this length.
(iv)Ventilation systems for passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers
(1)The ventilation system of a passenger ship carrying more than 36 passengers shall be in compliance with the following additional requirements.
(2)In general, the ventilation fans shall be so disposed that the ducts reaching the various spaces remain within the main vertical zone.
(3)Where ventilation systems penetrate decks, precautions shall be taken, in addition to those relating to the fire integrity of the deck required by paragraphs (c)(i) and (d)(i) (1) (E), to reduce the likelihood of smoke and hot gases passing from one ‘tween-deck space to another through the system. In addition to insulation requirements contained in paragraph (g)(iv), vertical ducts shall, if necessary, be insulated as required by the appropriate tables 9.1 and 9.2.
(4)Except in cargo spaces, ventilation ducts shall be constructed of the following materials:
(A)ducts not less than 0.075 m2 in free cross-sectional area and all vertical ducts serving more than a single ‘tween-deck space shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material;
(B)ducts less than 0.075 m2 in free cross-sectional area other than the vertical ducts referred to in paragraph (g)(iv) (4) (A), shall be constructed of non-combustible materials. Where such ducts penetrate “A” or “B” class division due regard shall be given to ensuring the fire integrity of the division; and
(C)short length of duct, not in general exceeding 0.02 m2 in free cross-sectional area nor 2 m in length, need not be non-combustible provided that all of the following conditions are met:
(I)the duct is constructed of a material which has low flame spread characteristics;
(II)the duct is used only at the terminal end of the ventilation system; and
(III)the duct is not located closer than 600 mm measured along its length to a penetration of an “A” or “B” class division, including continuous “B” class ceilings.
(5)Stairway enclosures shall be ventilated and served by an independent fan and duct system which shall not serve any other spaces in the ventilation systems.
(6)Exhaust ducts shall be provided with hatches for inspection and cleaning. The hatches shall be located near the fire dampers.
(v)Exhaust ducts from galley ranges
(1)Requirements for passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers
Exhaust ducts from galley ranges shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (g)(ii) (1) (B) (I) and (II) and shall be fitted with:
(A)a grease trap readily removable for cleaning unless an alternative approved grease removal system is fitted;
(B)a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct which is automatically and remotely operated, and in addition a remotely operated fire damper located in the upper end of the duct;
(C)a fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct;
(D)remote-control arrangements for shutting off the exhaust fans and supply fans, for operating the fire dampers mentioned in paragraph (g)(v) (1) (B) and for operating the fire-extinguishing system, which shall be placed in a position close to the entrance to the galley. Where a multi-branch system is installed, a remote means located with the above controls shall be provided to close all branches exhausting through the same main duct before an extinguishing medium is released into the system; and
(E)suitably located hatches for inspection and cleaning.
(2)Requirements for cargo ships and passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers
(A)Where they pass through accommodation spaces or spaces containing combustible materials, the exhaust ducts from galley ranges shall be constructed of “A” class divisions. Each exhaust duct shall be fitted with:
(I)a grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
(II)a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct;
(III)arrangements, operable from within the galley, for shutting off the exhaust fans; and
(IV)fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.
Regulation 10
Fire Fighting
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to suppress and swiftly extinguish a fire in the space of origin. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fixed fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed having due regard to the fire growth potential of the protected spaces; and
(ii)fire-extinguishing appliances shall be readily available.
Water supply systems
(b)Ships shall be provided with fire pumps, fire mains, hydrants and hoses complying with the applicable requirements of this Regulation.
(i)Fire mains and hydrants
(1)General
Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for fire mains and hydrants unless adequately protected. The pipes and hydrants shall be so placed that the fire hoses may be easily coupled to them. The arrangement of pipes and hydrants shall be such as to avoid the possibility of freezing. Suitable drainage provisions shall be provided for fire main piping. Isolation valves shall be installed for all open deck fire main branches used for purposes other than fire fighting. In ships where deck cargo may be carried, the positions of the hydrants shall be such that they are always readily accessible and the pipes shall be arranged as far as practicable to avoid risk of damage by such cargo.
(2)Ready availability of water supply
The arrangements for the ready availability of water supply shall be:
(A)in passenger ships:
(I)of 1,000 tons and upwards such that at least one effective jet of water is immediately available from any hydrant in an interior location and so as to ensure the continuation of the output of water by the automatic starting of one required fire pump;
(II)of less than 1,000 tons by automatic start of at least one fire pump or by remote starting from the navigation bridge of at least one fire pump. If the pump starts automatically or if the bottom valve cannot be opened from where the pump is remotely started, the bottom valve shall always be kept open; and
(III)if fitted with periodically unattended machinery spaces in accordance with Regulation 54 of Chapter II-1, the Director shall determine provisions for fixed water fire-extinguishing arrangement for such spaces equivalent to those required for normally attended machinery spaces;
(B)in cargo ships:
(I)to the satisfaction of the Director; and
(II)with a periodically unattended machinery space or when only one person is required on watch, there shall be immediate water delivery from the fire main system at a suitable pressure, either by remote starting of one of the main fire pumps with remote starting from the navigating bridge and fire control station, if any, or permanent pressurization of the fire main system by one of the main fire pumps, except that the Director may waive this requirement for cargo ships of less than 1,600 tons if the fire pump starting arrangement in the machinery space is in an easily accessible position.
(3)Diameter of fire mains
The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously, except that in the case of cargo ships the diameter need only be sufficient for the discharge of 140 m3/h.
(4)Isolating valves and relief valves
(A)Isolating valves to separate the section of the fire main within the machinery space containing the main fire pump or pumps from the rest of the fire main shall be fitted in an easily accessible and tenable position outside the machinery spaces. The fire main shall be so arranged that when the isolating valves are shut all the hydrants on the ship, except those in the machinery space referred to above, can be supplied with water by another fire pump or an emergency fire pump. The emergency fire pump, its seawater inlet, and suction and delivery pipes and isolating valves shall be located outside the machinery space. If this arrangement cannot be made, the sea-chest may be fitted in the machinery space if the valve is remotely controlled from a position in the same compartment as the emergency fire pump and the suction pipe is as short as practicable. Short lengths of suction or discharge piping may penetrate the machinery space, provided they are enclosed in a substantial steel casing, or are insulated to “A-60” class standards. The pipes shall have substantial wall thickness, but in no case less than 11 mm, and shall be welded except for the flanged connection to sea inlet valve.
(B)A valve shall be fitted to serve each fire hydrant so that any fire hose may be removed while the fire pumps are in operation.
(C)Relief valves shall be provided in conjunction with fire pumps if the pumps are capable of developing a pressure exceeding the design pressure of the water service pipes, hydrants and hoses. These valves shall be so placed and adjusted as to prevent excessive pressure in any part of the fire main system.
(D)In tankers, isolation valves shall be fitted in the fire main at poop front in a protected position and on the tank deck at intervals of not more than 40 m to preserve the integrity of the fire main system in case of fire or explosion.
(5)Number and position of hydrants
(A)The number and position of hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of water not emanating from the same hydrant, one of which shall be from a single length of hose, may reach any part of the ship normally accessible to the passengers or crew while the ship is being navigated and any part of any cargo space when empty, any ro-ro space or any vehicle space in which latter case the two jets shall reach any part of the space, each from a single length of hose. Furthermore, such hydrants shall be positioned near the accesses to the protected spaces.
(B)In addition to the requirements in paragraph (b)(i) (5) (A), passenger ships shall comply with the following:
(I)in the accommodation, service and machinery spaces the number and position of hydrants shall be such that the requirements of paragraph (b)(i) (5) (A) may be complied with when all watertight doors and all doors in main vertical zone bulkheads are closed; and
(II)where access is provided to a machinery space of Category A at a low level from an adjacent shaft tunnel, two hydrants shall be provided external to, but near the entrance to that machinery space. Where such access is provided from other spaces, in one of those spaces two hydrants shall be provided near the entrance to the machinery space of Category A. Such provision need not be made where the tunnel or adjacent spaces are not part of the escape route.
(6)Pressure at hydrants
With the two pumps simultaneously delivering water through the nozzles specified in paragraph (b)(iii) (3), with the quantity of water as specified in paragraph (b)(i) (3), through any adjacent hydrants, the following minimum pressures shall be maintained at all hydrants:
(A)for passenger ships:
 
4,000 tons and upwards
 
0.40 N/mm2
 
less than 4,000 tons
 
0.30 N/mm2;
(B)for cargo ships:
 
6,000 tons and upwards
 
0.27 N/mm2
 
less than 6,000 tons
 
0.25 N/mm2; and
(C)the maximum pressure at any hydrant shall not exceed that at which the effective control of a fire hose can be demonstrated.
(7)International shore connection
(A)Ships of 500 tons and upwards shall be provided with at least one international shore connection complying with the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(B)Facilities shall be available enabling such a connection to be used on either side of the ship.
(ii)Fire pumps
(1)Pumps accepted as fire pumps
Sanitary, ballast, bilge or general service pumps may be accepted as fire pumps, provided that they are not normally used for pumping oil and that if they are subject to occasional duty for the transfer or pumping of oil fuel, suitable change-over arrangements are fitted.
(2)Number of fire pumps
Ships shall be provided with independently driven fire pumps as follows:
(A)in passenger ships of:
 
4,000 tons and upwards
 
at least three
 
less than 4,000 tons
 
at least two
(B)in cargo ships of:
 
1,000 tons and upwards
 
at least two
 
less than 1,000 tons
 
at least two power driven pumps, one of which shall be independently driven.
(3)Arrangement of fire pumps and fire mains
(A)Fire pumps
The arrangement of sea connections, fire pumps and their sources of power shall be as to ensure that:
(I)in passenger ships of l,000 tons and upwards, in the event of a fire in any one compartment all the fire pumps will not be put out of action; and
(II)in passenger ships of less than 1,000 tons and in cargo ships, if a fire in any one compartment could put all the pumps out of action, there shall be an alternative means consisting of an emergency fire pump complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code with its source of power and sea connection located outside the space where the main fire pumps or their sources of power are located.
(B)Requirements for the space containing the emergency fire pump
(I)Location of the space
The space containing the fire pump shall not be contiguous to the boundaries of machinery spaces of Category A or those spaces containing main fire pumps. Where this is not practicable, the common bulkhead between the two spaces shall be insulated to a standard of structural fire protection equivalent to that required for a control station in Regulation 9(b)(iii)(3).
(II)Access to the emergency fire pump
No direct access shall be permitted between the machinery space and the space containing the emergency fire pump and its source of power. When this is impracticable, the Director may accept an arrangement where the access is by means of an airlock with the door of the machinery space being of “A-60” class standard, and the other door being at least steel, both reasonably gas tight, self-closing and without any hold-back arrangements. Alternatively, the access may be through a watertight door capable of being operated from a space remote from the machinery space and the space containing the emergency fire pump and unlikely to be cut off the the event of fire in those spaces. In such cases, a second means of access to the space containing the emergency fire pump and its source of power shall be provided.
(III)Ventilation of the emergency fire pump space
Ventilation arrangements to the space containing the independent source of power for the emergency fire pump shall be such as to preclude, as far as practicable, the possibility of smoke from a machinery space fire entering or being drawn into that space.
(C)Additional pumps for cargo ships
In addition, in cargo ships where other pumps, such as general service, bilge and ballast, etc., are fitted in a machinery space, arrangements shall be made to ensure that at least one of these pumps, having the capacity and pressure required by paragraphs (b)(i) (6) (B) and (b)(ii) (4) (B), is capable of providing water to the fire main.
(4)Capacity of fire pumps
(A)Total capacity of required fire pumps
The required fire pumps shall be capable of delivering for fire-fighting purposes a quantity of water, at the pressure specified in paragraph (b)(i) (6), as follows:
(I)pumps in passenger ships, the quantity of water is not less than two thirds of the quantity required to be dealt with by the bilge pumps when employed for bilge pumping; and
(II)pumps in cargo ships, other than any emergency pump, the quantity of water is not less than four thirds of the quantity required under Regulation 21 of Chapter II-1 to be dealt with by each of the independent bilge pumps in a passenger ship of the same dimension when employed in bilge pumping, provided that in no cargo ship need the total required capacity of the fire pumps exceed 180 m3/h.
(B)Capacity of each fire pump
Each of the required fire pumps (other than any emergency pump required in paragraph (b)(ii) (3) (A) (II) for cargo ships) shall have a capacity not less than 80% of the total required capacity divided by the minimum number of required fire pumps but in any case not less than 25 m3/h and each such pump shall in any event be capable of delivering at least the two required jets of water. These fire pumps shall be capable of supplying the fire main system under the required conditions. Where more pumps than the minimum of required pumps are installed such additional pumps shall have a capacity of at least 25 m3/h and shall be capable of delivering at least the two jets of water required in paragraph (b)(i) (5) (A).
(iii)Fire hoses and nozzles
(1)General specifications
(A)Fire hoses shall be of non-perishable material approved by the Director and shall be sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be required to be used. Each hose shall be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings. Hoses specified in this Chapter as “fire hoses” shall, together with any necessary fittings and tools, be kept ready for use in conspicuous positions near the water service hydrants or connections. Additionally, in interior locations in passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers fire hoses shall be connected to the hydrants at all times. Fire hoses shall have a length of at least 10 m, but not more than:
(I)15 m in machinery spaces;
(II)20 m in other spaces and open decks; and
(III)25 m for open decks on ships with a maximum breadth in excess of 30 m.
(B)Unless one hose and nozzle is provided for each hydrant in the ship, there shall be complete interchangeability of hose couplings and nozzles.
(2)Number and diameter of fire hoses
(A)Ships shall be provided with fire hoses the number and diameter of which shall be to the satisfaction of the Director.
(B)In passenger ships, there shall be at least one fire hose for each of the hydrants required by paragraph (b)(i) (5) and these hoses shall be used only for the purposes of extinguishing fires or testing the fire-extinguishing apparatus at fire drills and surveys.
(C)In cargo ships:
(I)of 1,000 tons and upwards, the number of fire hoses to be provided shall be one for each 30 m length of the ship and one spare but in no case less than five in all. This number does not include any hoses required in any engine or boiler room. The Director may increase the number of hoses required so as to ensure that hoses in sufficient number are available and accessible at all times, having regard to the type of ship and the nature of trade in which the ship is employed. Ships carrying dangerous goods in accordance with Regulation 19 shall be provided with 3 hoses and nozzles, in addition to those required above; and
(II)of less than 1,000 tons, the number of fire hoses to be provided shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(iii) (2) (C) (I). However, the number of hoses shall in no case be less than three.
(3)Size and types of nozzles
(A)For the purposes of this Chapter, standard nozzle sizes shall be 12 mm, 16 mm and 19 mm or as near thereto as possible. Larger diameter nozzles may be permitted at the discretion of the Director.
(B)For accommodation and service spaces, a nozzle size greater than 12 mm need not be used.
(C)For machinery spaces and exterior locations, the nozzle size shall be such as to obtain the maximum discharge possible from two jets at the pressure mentioned in paragraph (b)(i) (6) from the smallest pump, provided that a nozzle size greater than 19 mm need not be used.
(D)Nozzles shall be of an approved dual-purpose type (i.e., spray/jet type) incorporating a shutoff.
Portable fire extinguishers
(c)
(i)Type and design
Portable fire extinguishers shall comply with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(ii)Arrangement of fire extinguishers
(1)Accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers of appropriate types and in sufficient number to the satisfaction of the Director. Ships of 1,000 tons and upwards shall carry at least five portable fire extinguishers.
(2)One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the entrance to that space.
(3)Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers shall not be placed in accommodation spaces. In control stations and other spaces containing electrical or electronic equipment or appliances necessary for the safety of the ship, fire extinguishers should be provided whose extinguishing media are neither electrically conductive nor harmful to the equipment and appliances.
(4)Fire extinguishers shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in the event of a fire, and in such a way that their serviceability is not impaired by the weather, vibration or other external factors. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided with devices which indicate whether they have been used.
(iii)Spare charges
(1)Spare charges shall be provided for 100% of the first 10 extinguishers and 50% of the remaining fire extinguishers capable of being recharged on board. Not more than 60 total spare charges are required. Instructions for recharging shall be carried on board.
(2)For fire extinguishers which cannot be recharged on board, additional portable fire extinguishers of the same quantity, type, capacity and number as determined in paragraph (c)(iii) (1) above shall be provided in lieu of spare charges.
Fixed fire-extinguishing systems
(d)
(i)Types of fixed fire-extinguishing systems
(1)A fixed fire-extinguishing system required by paragraph (e) below may be any of the following systems:
(A)a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(B)a fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code; and
(C)a fixed pressure water-spraying fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(2)Where a fixed fire-extinguishing system not required by this Chapter is installed, it shall meet the requirements of the relevant Regulations of this Chapter and the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(3)Fire-extinguishing systems using Halon 1211, 1301 and 2402 and perfluorocarbons shall be prohibited.
(4)In general, the Director shall not permit the use of steam as a fire-extinguishing medium in fixed fire-extinguishing systems. Where the use of steam is permitted by the Director, it shall be used only in restricted areas as an addition to the required fire-extinguishing system and shall comply with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(ii)Closing appliances for fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems
Where a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system is used, openings which may admit air to, or allow gas to escape from, a protected space shall be capable of being closed from outside the protected space.
(iii)Storage rooms of fire-extinguishing medium
When the fire-extinguishing medium is stored outside a protected space, it shall be stored in a room which is located behind the forward collision bulkhead, and is used for no other purposes. Any entrance to such a storage room shall preferably be from the open deck and shall be independent of the protected space. If the storage space is located below deck, it shall be located no more than one deck below the open deck and shall be directly accessible by a stairway or ladder from the open deck. Spaces which are located below deck or spaces where access from the open deck is not provided, shall be fitted with a mechanical ventilation system designed to take exhaust air from the bottom of the space and shall be sized to provide at least 6 air changes per hour. Access doors shall open outwards, and bulkheads and decks including doors and other means of closing any opening therein, which form the boundaries between such rooms and adjacent enclosed spaces shall be gas tight. For the purpose of the application of tables 9.1 to 9.8, such storage rooms shall be treated as fire control stations.
(iv)Water pumps for other fire-extinguishing systems
Pumps, other than those serving the fire main, required for the provision of water for fire-extinguishing systems required by this Chapter, their sources of power and their controls shall be installed outside the space or spaces protected by such systems and shall be so arranged that a fire in the space or spaces protected will not put any such system out of action.
Fire-extinguishing arrangements in machinery spaces
(e)
(i)Machinery spaces containing oil-fired boilers or oil fuel units
(1)Fixed fire-extinguishing systems
Machinery spaces of category A containing oil-fired boilers or oil fuel units shall be provided with any one of the fixed fire-extinguishing systems in paragraph (d)(i). In each case, if the engine and boiler rooms are not entirely separate, or if fuel oil can drain from the boiler room into the engine-room, the combined engine and boiler rooms shall be considered as one compartment.
(2)Additional fire-extinguishing arrangements
(A)There shall be in each boiler room or at an entrance outside of the boiler room at least one portable foam applicator unit complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(B)There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers or equivalent in each firing space in each boiler room and in each space in which a part of the oil fuel installation is situated. There shall be not less than one approved foam-type extinguisher of at least 135 litres capacity or equivalent in each boiler room. These extinguishers shall be provided with hoses on reels suitable for reaching any part of the boiler room. In the case of domestic boilers of less than 175 kW an approved foam-type extinguisher of at least 135 litres capacity is not required.
(C)In each firing space there shall be a receptacle containing at least 0.1 m3 sand, sawdust impregnated with soda, or other approved dry material, along with a suitable shovel for spreading the material. An approved portable extinguisher may be substituted as an alternative.
(ii)Machinery spaces containing internal combustion machinery
(1)Fixed fire-extinguishing systems
Machinery spaces of category A containing internal combustion machinery shall be provided with one of the fixed fire-extinguishing systems in paragraph (d)(i).
(2)Additional fire-extinguishing arrangements
(A)There shall be at least one portable foam applicator unit complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(B)There shall be in each such space approved foam-type fire extinguishers, each of at least 45 litres capacity or equivalent, sufficient in number to enable foam or its equivalent to be directed on to any part of the fuel and lubricating oil pressure systems, gearing and other fire hazards. In addition, there shall be provided a sufficient number of portable foam extinguishers or equivalent which shall be so located that no point in the space is more than 10 m walking distance from an extinguisher and that there are at least two such extinguishers in each such space. For smaller spaces of cargo ships the Director may consider relaxing this requirement.
(iii)Machinery spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines
(1)Fixed fire-extinguishing systems
In spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines used for main propulsion or other purposes having in the aggregate a total output of not less than 375 kW, one of the fire-extinguishing systems specified in paragraph (d)(i) shall be provided if such spaces are periodically unattended.
(2)Additional fire-extinguishing arrangements
(A)There shall be approved foam fire extinguishers each of at least 45 litres capacity or equivalent sufficient in number to enable foam or its equivalent to be directed on to any part of the pressure lubrication system, or to any part of the casings enclosing pressure lubricated parts of the turbines, engines or associated gearing, and any other fire hazards. However, such extinguishers shall not be required if protection, at least equivalent to that required by this sub-paragraph, is provided in such spaces by a fixed fire-extinguishing system fitted in compliance with paragraph (d)(i).
(B)There shall be a sufficient number of portable foam extinguishers or equivalent which shall be so located that no point in the space is more than 10 m walking distance from an extinguisher and that there are at least two such extinguishers in each such space, except that such extinguishers shall not be required in addition to any provided in compliance with paragraph (e)(i) (2) (B).
(iv)Other machinery spaces
Where, in the opinion of the Director, a fire hazard exists in any machinery space for which no specific provisions for fire-extinguishing appliances are prescribed in paragraphs (e)(i), (ii) and (iii), there shall be provided in, or adjacent to, that space such a number of approved portable fire extinguishers or other means of fire extinction as the Director may deem sufficient.
(v)Additional requirements for passenger ships
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, each machinery space of category A shall be provided with at least two suitable water fog applicators.13
13  A water fog applicator might consist of a metal L-shaped pipe, the long limb being about 2 m in length capable of being fitted to a fire hose and the short limb being about 250 mm in length fitted with a fixed water fog nozzle or capable of being fitted with a water spray nozzle.
(vi)Fixed local application fire-fighting systems
(1)Paragraph (e)(vi) shall apply to passenger ships of 500 tons and above and cargo ships of 2,000 tons and above.
(2)Machinery spaces of category A above 500 m3 in volume shall, in addition to the fixed fire-extinguishing system required in paragraph (e)(i) (1), be protected by an approved type of fixed water-based or equivalent local application fire-fighting system, based on the guidelines developed by the Organization.14 In the case of periodically unattended machinery spaces, the fire-fighting system shall have both automatic and manual release capabilities. In the case of continuously manned machinery spaces, the fire-fighting system is only required to have a manual release capability.
14  Refer to the Guidelines for the approval of fixed water-based local application fire-fighting systems for use in Category A machinery spaces (MSC/Circ.913).
(3)Fixed local application fire-fighting systems are to protect areas such as the following without the necessity of engine shutdown, personnel evacuation, or sealing of the spaces:
(A)the fire hazard portions of internal combustion machinery used for the ship’s main propulsion and power generation;
(B)boiler fronts;
(C)the fire hazard portions of incinerators; and
(D)purifiers for heated fuel oil.
(4)Activation of any local application system shall give a visual and distinct audible alarm in the protected space and at continuously manned stations. The alarm shall indicate the specific system activated. The system alarm requirements described within this paragraph are in addition to, and not a substitute for, the detection and fire alarm system required elsewhere in this Chapter.
Fire-extinguishing arrangements in control stations, accommodation and service spaces
(f)
(i)Sprinkler systems in passenger ships
(1)Passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system of an approved type complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code in all control stations, accommodation and service spaces, including corridors and stairways. Alternatively, control stations, where water may cause damage to essential equipment, may be fitted with an approved fixed fire-extinguishing system of another type. Spaces having little or no fire risk such as voids, public toilets, carbon dioxide rooms and similar spaces need not be fitted with an automatic sprinkler system.
(2)In passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, when a fixed smoke detection and fire alarm system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code is provided only in corridors, stairways and escape routes within accommodation spaces, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Regulation 7(e)(iii)(2).
(ii)Sprinkler systems for cargo ships
In cargo ships in which Method IIC specified in Regulation 9(b)(iii)(1)(A)(II) is adopted, an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm system shall be fitted in accordance with the requirements in Regulation 7(e)(v)(2).
(iii)Spaces containing flammable liquid
(1)Paint lockers shall be protected by:
(A)a carbon dioxide system, designed to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 40% of the gross volume of the protected space;
(B)a dry powder system, designed for at least 0.5 kg powder/m3;
(C)a water spraying or sprinkler system, designed for 5 l/m2 min. Water spraying systems may be connected to the fire main of the ship; or
(D)a system providing equivalent protection, as determined by the Director.
In any case, the system shall be operable from outside the protected space.
(2)Flammable liquid lockers shall be protected by an appropriate fire-extinguishing arrangement approved by the Director.
(3)For lockers of a deck area of less than 4 m2, which do not give access to accommodation spaces, a carbon dioxide portable fire extinguisher sized to provide a minimum volume of free gas equal to 40% of the gross volume of the space may be accepted in lieu of a fixed system. A discharge port shall be arranged in the locker to allow the discharge of the extinguisher without having to enter into the protected space. The required portable fire extinguisher shall be stowed adjacent to the port. Alternatively, a port or hose connection may be provided to facilitate the use of fire main water.
(iv)Deep-fat cooking equipment
Deep-fat cooking equipment shall be fitted with the following:
(1)an automatic or manual extinguishing system tested to an international standard acceptable to the Director15;
15  Refer to the recommendations by the International Organization for Standardization, in particular, Publication ISO 15371:2000 on Fire-extinguishing systems for protection of galley deep-fat cooking equipment.
(2)a primary and backup thermostat with an alarm to alert the operator in the event of failure of either thermostat;
(3)arrangements for automatically shutting off the electrical power upon activation of the extinguishing system;
(4)an alarm for indicating operation of the extinguishing system in the galley where the equipment is installed; and
(5)controls for manual operation of the extinguishing system which are clearly labelled for ready use by the crew.
Fire-extinguishing arrangements in cargo spaces
(g)
(i)Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems for general cargo
(1)Except as provided for in paragraph (g)(ii), the cargo spaces of passenger ships of 1,000 tons and upwards shall be protected by a fixed carbon dioxide or inert gas fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code or by a fixed high expansion foam fire-extinguishing system which gives equivalent protection.
(2)Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Director that a passenger ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply the requirements of paragraph (g)(i) (1) and also in ships of less than 1,000 tons, the arrangements in cargo spaces shall be to the satisfaction of the Director, provided that the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing all ventilators and other openings leading to the cargo spaces.
(3)Except for ro-ro and vehicle spaces, cargo spaces on cargo ships of 2,000 tons and upwards shall be protected by a fixed carbon dioxide or inert gas fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, or by a fire-extinguishing system which gives equivalent protection.
(4)The Director may exempt from the requirements of paragraphs (g)(i) (3) and (g)(ii), cargo spaces of any cargo ship if constructed, and solely intended for, the carriage of ore, coal, grain, unseasoned timber, non-combustible cargoes or cargoes which, in the opinion of the Director, constitute a low fire risk.16 Such exemptions may be granted only if the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing ventilators and other openings leading to the cargo spaces. When such exemptions are granted, the Director shall issue an Exemption Certificate, irrespective of the date of construction of the ship concerned, in accordance with Regulation 12(a)(vi) of Chapter I, and shall ensure that the list of cargoes the ship is permitted to carry is attached to the Exemption Certificate.
16  Refer to the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes - Emergency Schedule B14, entry for coal and to the List of solid bulk cargoes which are non-combustible or constitute a low fire risk or for which a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system is ineffective (MSC/Circ.671).
(ii)Fixed gas fire-extinguishing systems for dangerous goods
A ship engaged in the carriage of dangerous goods in any cargo spaces shall be provided with a fixed carbon dioxide or inert gas fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code or with a fire-extinguishing system which, in the opinion of the Director, gives equivalent protection for the cargoes carried.
Cargo tank protection
(h)
(i)Fixed deck foam systems
(1)For tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards, a fixed deck foam system shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code, except that, in lieu of the above, the Director, after having given consideration to the ship’s arrangement and equipment, may accept other fixed installations if they afford protection equivalent to the above, in accordance with Regulation 5 of Chapter I. The requirements for alternative fixed installations shall comply with the requirements in paragraph (h)(i) (2).
(2)In accordance with paragraph (h)(i) (1), where the Director accepts an equivalent fixed installation in lieu of the fixed deck foam system, the installation shall:
(A)be capable of extinguishing spill fires and also preclude ignition of spilled oil not yet ignited; and
(B)be capable of combating fires in ruptured tanks.
(3)Tankers of less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight shall be provided with a deck foam system complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
Protection of cargo pump rooms in tankers
(i)
(i)
Fixed fire-extinguishing systems
Each cargo pump-room shall be provided with one of the following fixed fire-extinguishing systems operated from a readily accessible position outside the pump-room. Cargo pump-rooms shall be provided with a system suitable for machinery spaces of category A.
(1)A carbon dioxide system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code and with the following:
(A)the alarms giving audible warning of the release of fire-extinguishing medium shall be safe for use in a flammable cargo vapour/air mixture; and
(B)a notice shall be exhibited at the controls stating that due to the electrostatic ignition hazard, the system is to be used only for fire-extinguishing and not for inerting purposes.
(2)A high-expansion foam system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, provided that the foam concentrate supply is suitable for extinguishing fires involving the cargoes carried.
(3)A fixed pressure water-spraying system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(ii)Quantity of fire-extinguishing mediumWhere the extinguishing medium used in the cargo pump-room system is also used in systems serving other spaces, the quantity of medium provided or its delivery rate need not be more than the maximum required for the largest compartment.
Fire-fighter’s outfits(j)
(i)
Types of fire-fighter’s outfits
Fire-fighter’s outfits shall comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code.(ii)Number of fire-fighter’s outfits
(1)Ships shall carry at least two fire-fighter’s outfits.
(2)In addition, in passenger ships there shall be provided:
(A)for every 80 m, or part thereof, of the aggregate of the lengths of all passenger spaces and service spaces on the deck which carries such spaces or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck which has the largest aggregate of such lengths, two fire-fighter’s outfits and, in addition, two sets of personal equipment, each set comprising the items stipulated in the Fire Safety Systems Code. In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two additional fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided for each main vertical zone. However, for stairway enclosures which constitute individual main vertical zones and for the main vertical zones in the fore or aft end of a ship which do not contain spaces of categories (6), (7), (8) or (12) defined in Regulation 9(b)(ii)(3), no additional fire-fighter’s outfits are required; and
(B)ships carrying more than 36 passengers, for each pair of breathing apparatus there shall be provided one water fog applicator which shall be stored adjacent to such apparatus.
(3)In addition, in tankers, two fire-fighter’s outfits shall be provided.
(4)The Director may require additional sets of personal equipment and breathing apparatus, having due regard to the size and type of the ship.
(5)Two spare charges shall be provided for each required breathing apparatus. Passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers and cargo ships that are equipped with suitably located means for fully recharging the air cylinders free from contamination, need carry only one spare charge for each required apparatus. In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, at least two spare charges for each breathing apparatus shall be provided.
(iii)Storage of fire-fighter’s outfits
(1)The fire-fighter’s outfits or sets of personal equipment shall be kept ready for use in an easily accessible location that is permanently and clearly marked and, where more than one fire-fighter’s outfit or more than one set of personal equipment is carried, they shall be stored in widely separated positions.
(2)In passenger ships, at least two fire-fighter’s outfits and, in addition, one set of personal equipment shall be available at any one position. At least two fire-fighter’s outfits shall be stored in each main vertical zone.
Regulation 11
Structural Integrity
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to maintain structural integrity of the ship preventing partial or whole collapse of the ship structures due to strength deterioration by heat. For this purpose, materials used in the ships’ structure shall ensure that the structural integrity is not degraded due to fire.Material of hull, superstructures, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses(b)The hull, superstructures, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. For the purpose of applying the definition of steel or other equivalent material as given in Regulation 3(qq) the “applicable fire exposure” shall be according to the integrity and insulation standards given in tables 9.1 to 9.4. For example, where divisions such as decks or sides and ends of deckhouses are permitted to have “B-0” fire integrity, the “applicable fire exposure” shall be half an hour.Structure of aluminium alloy(c)Unless otherwise specified in paragraph (b), in cases where any part of the structure is of aluminium alloy, the following shall apply:
(i)the insulation of aluminium alloy components of “A” or “B” class divisions, except structure which, in the opinion of the Director, is non-load-bearing, shall be such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise more than 200°C above the ambient temperature at any time during the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire test; and
(ii)special attention shall be given to the insulation of aluminium alloy components of columns, stanchions and other structural members required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and embarkation areas, and “A” and “B” class divisions to ensure:
(1)that for such members supporting lifeboat and liferaft areas and “A” class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in paragraph (c)(i) shall apply at the end of one hour; and
(2)that for such members required to support “B” class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in paragraph (c)(i) shall apply at the end of half an hour.
Machinery spaces of Category A(d)
(i)Crowns and casings
Crowns and casings of machinery spaces of category A shall be of steel construction and shall be insulated as required by tables 9.5 and 9.7, as appropriate.
(ii)Floor plating
The floor plating of normal passageways in machinery spaces of Category A shall be made of steel.
Materials of overboard fittings(e)Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges, and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to danger of flooding.Protection of cargo tank structure against pressure or vacuum in tankers(f)
(i)General
The venting arrangements shall be so designed and operated as to ensure that neither pressure nor vacuum in cargo tanks shall exceed design parameters and be such as to provide for:
(1)the flow of the small volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures caused by thermal variations in a cargo tank in all cases through pressure/vacuum valves; and(2)the passage of large volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures during cargo loading and ballasting, or during discharging.
(ii)Openings for small flow by thermal variations
Openings for pressure release required by paragraph (f)(i) (1) shall:
(1)have as great a height as is practicable above the cargo tank deck to obtain maximum dispersal of flammable vapours, but in no case less than 2 m above the cargo tank deck; and(2)be arranged at the furthest distance practicable but not less than 5 m from the nearest air intakes and openings to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck machinery and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard. Anchor windlass and chain locker openings constitute an ignition hazard.
(iii)Safety measures in cargo tanks
(1)Preventive measures against liquid rising in the venting systemProvisions shall be made to guard against liquid rising in the venting system to a height which would exceed the design head of cargo tanks. This shall be accomplished by high-level alarms or overflow control systems or other equivalent means, together with independent gauging devices and cargo tank filling procedures. For the purposes of this Regulation, spill valves are not considered equivalent to an overflow system.
(2)Secondary means for pressure/vacuum reliefA secondary means of allowing full flow relief of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures to prevent over-pressure or under-pressure in the event of failure of the arrangements in paragraph (f)(i) (2). Alternatively, pressure sensors may be fitted in each tank protected by the arrangement required in paragraph (f)(i) (2), with a monitoring system in the ship’s cargo control room or the position from which cargo operations are normally carried out. Such monitoring equipment shall also provide an alarm facility which is activated by detection of over-pressure or under-pressure conditions within a tank.
(3)Bypasses in vent mainsPressure/vacuum valves required by paragraph (f)(i) (1) may be provided with a bypass arrangement when they are located in a vent main or masthead riser. Where such an arrangement is provided there shall be suitable indicators to show whether the bypass is open or closed.
(4)Pressure/vacuum-breaking devicesOne or more pressure/vacuum-breaking devices shall be provided to prevent the cargo tanks from being subject to:
(A)a positive pressure, in excess of the test pressure of the cargo tank, if the cargo were to be loaded at the maximum rated capacity and all other outlets are left shut; and
(B)a negative pressure in excess of 700 mm water gauge if cargo were to be discharged at the maximum rated capacity of the cargo pumps and the inert gas blowers were to fail.
Such devices shall be installed on the inert gas main unless they are installed in the venting system required by Regulation 4(e)(iii)(1) or on individual cargo tanks. The location and design of the devices shall be in accordance with Regulation 4(e)(iii) and paragraph (f).
(iv)Size of vent outlets
Vent outlets for cargo loading, discharging and ballasting required by paragraph (f)(i) (2) shall be designed on the basis of the maximum designed loading rate multiplied by a factor of at least 1.25 to take account of gas evolution, in order to prevent the pressure in any cargo tank from exceeding the design pressure. The master shall be provided with information regarding the maximum permissible loading rate for each cargo tank and in the case of combined venting systems, for each group of cargo tanks.
PART D — ESCAPE
Regulation 12
Notification of Crew and Passengers
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to notify crew and passengers of a fire for safe evacuation. For this purpose, a general emergency alarm system and a public address system shall be provided.General emergency alarm system(b)A general emergency alarm system required by Regulation 6(d)(ii) of Chapter III shall be used for notifying crew and passengers of a fire.Public address systems in passenger ships(c)A public address system or other effective means of communication complying with the requirements of Regulation 6(e) of Chapter III shall be available throughout the accommodation and service spaces and control stations and open decks.
Regulation 13
Means of Escape
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide means of escape so that persons on board can safely and swiftly escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)safe escape routes shall be provided;
(ii)escape routes shall be maintained in a safe condition, clear of obstacles; and
(iii)additional aids for escape shall be provided as necessary to ensure accessibility, clear marking and adequate design for emergency situations.
General requirements(b)
(i)Unless expressly provided otherwise in this Regulation, at least two widely separated and ready means of escape shall be provided from all spaces or group of spaces.
(ii)Lifts shall not be considered as forming one of the means of escape as required by this Regulation.
Means of escape from control stations, accommodation and service spaces(c)
(i)
General requirements
(1)Stairways and ladders shall be so arranged as to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck from passenger and crew accommodation spaces and from spaces in which the crew is normally employed, other than machinery spaces.
(2)Unless expressly provided otherwise in this Regulation, a corridor, lobby, or part of a corridor from which there is only one route of escape shall be prohibited. Dead-end corridors used in service areas which are necessary for the practical utility of the ship, such as fuel oil stations and athwartship supply corridors, shall be permitted, provided such dead-end corridors are separated from crew accommodation areas and are inaccessible from passenger accommodation areas. Also, a part of a corridor that has a depth not exceeding its width is considered a recess or local extension and is permitted.
(3)All stairways in accommodation and service spaces and control stations shall be of steel frame construction except where the Director sanctions the use of other equivalent material.
(4)If a radiotelegraph station has no direct access to the open deck, two means of escape from or access to, the station shall be provided, one of which may be a porthole or window of sufficient size or other means to the satisfaction of the Director.
(5)Doors in escape routes shall, in general, open in-way of the direction of escape, except that:
(A)individual cabin doors may open into the cabins in order to avoid injury to persons in the corridor when the door is opened; and
(B)doors in vertical emergency escape trunks may open out of the trunk in order to permit the trunk to be used both for escape and for access.
(ii)Means of escape in passenger ships
(1)Escape from spaces below the bulkhead deck
(A)Below the bulkhead deck two means of escape, at least one of which shall be independent of watertight doors, shall be provided from each watertight compartment or similarly restricted space or group of spaces. Exceptionally, the Director may dispense with one of the means of escape for crew spaces that are entered only occasionally, if the required escape route is independent of watertight doors.
(B)Where the Director has granted dispensation under the provisions of paragraph (c)(ii) (1) (A), this sole means of escape shall provide safe escape. However, stairways shall not be less than 800 mm in clear width with handrails on both sides.
(2)Escape from spaces above the bulkhead deckAbove the bulkhead deck there shall be at least two means of escape from each main vertical zone or similarly restricted space or group of spaces at least one of which shall give access to a stairway forming a vertical escape.
(3)Direct access to stairway enclosuresStairway enclosures in accommodation and service spaces shall have direct access from the corridors and be of a sufficient area to prevent congestion, having in view the number of persons likely to use them in an emergency. Within the perimeter of such stairway enclosures, only public toilets, lockers of non-combustible material providing storage for non-hazardous safety equipment and open information counters are permitted. Only public spaces, corridors, lifts, public toilets, special category spaces and open ro-ro spaces to which any passengers carried can have access, other escape stairways required by paragraph (c)(ii) (4) and external areas are permitted to have direct access to these stairway enclosures. Small corridors or “lobbies” used to separate an enclosed stairway from galleys or main laundries may have direct access to the stairway provided they have a minimum deck area of 4.5 m2, a width of no less than 900 mm and contain a fire hose station.
(4)Details of means of escape
(A)At least one of the means of escape required by paragraphs (c)(ii) (1) (A) and (c)(ii) (2) shall consist of a readily accessible enclosed stairway, which shall provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks, or to the uppermost weather deck if the embarkation deck does not extend to the main vertical zone being considered. In the latter case, direct access to the embarkation deck by way of external open stairways and passageways shall be provided and shall have emergency lighting in accordance with Regulation 11(e) of Chapter III and slip-free surfaces underfoot. Boundaries facing external open stairways and passageways forming part of an escape route and boundaries in such a position that their failure during a fire would impede escape to the embarkation deck shall have fire integrity, including insulation values, in accordance with tables 9.1 to 9.4, as appropriate.
(B)Protection of access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas shall be provided either directly or through protected internal routes which have fire integrity and insulation values for stairway enclosures as determined by tables 9.1 to 9.4, as appropriate.
(C)Stairways serving only a space and a balcony in that space shall not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.
(D)Each level within an atrium shall have two means of escape, one of which shall give direct access to an enclosed vertical means of escape meeting the requirements of paragraph (c)(ii) (4) (A).
(E)The widths, number and continuity of escapes shall be in accordance with the requirements in the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(5)Marking of escape routes
(A)In addition to the emergency lighting required by Regulations 42 of Chapter II-1 and 11 (e) of Chapter III, the means of escape, including stairways and exits, shall be marked by lighting or photoluminescent strip indicators placed not more than 300 mm above the deck at all points of the escape route including angles and intersections. The marking must enable passengers to identify the routes of escape and readily identify the escape exits. If electric illumination is used, it shall be supplied by the emergency source of power and it shall be so arranged that the failure of any single light or cut in a lighting strip will not result in the marking being ineffective. Additionally, escape route signs and fire equipment location markings shall be of photoluminescent material or marked by lighting, either of which complies with the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(B)In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the requirements of paragraph (c)(ii) (5) (A) shall also apply to the crew accommodation areas.
(6)Normally locked doors that form part of an escape route
(A)Cabin and stateroom doors shall not require keys to unlock them from inside the room. Neither shall there be any doors along any designated escape route which require keys to unlock them when moving in the direction of escape.
(B)Escape doors from public spaces that are normally latched shall be fitted with a means of quick release. Such means shall consist of a door-latching mechanism incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of escape flow. Quick release mechanisms shall be designed and installed to the satisfaction of the Director and, in particular:
(I)consist of bars or panels, the actuating portion of which extends across at least one half of the width of the door leaf, at least 760 mm and not more than 1,120 mm above the deck;
(II)cause the latch to release when a force not exceeding 67 N is applied; and
(III)not be equipped with any locking device, set screw or other arrangement that prevents the release of the latch when pressure is applied to the releasing device.
(iii)Means of escape in cargo ships
(1)GeneralAt all levels of accommodation there shall be provided at least two widely separated means of escape from each restricted space or group of spaces.
(2)Escape from spaces below the lowest open deckBelow the lowest open deck the main means of escape shall be a stairway and the second escape may be a trunk or a stairway.
(3)Escape from spaces above the lowest open deckAbove the lowest open deck the means of escape shall be stairways or doors to an open deck or a combination thereof.
(4)Dead-end corridorsNo dead-end corridors having a length of more than 7 m shall be accepted.
(5)Width and continuity of escape routesThe width, number and continuity of escape routes shall be in accordance with the requirements in the Fire Safety Systems Code.
(6)Dispensation from two means of escapeExceptionally the Director may dispense with one of the means of escape, for crew spaces that are entered only occasionally, if the required escape route is independent of watertight doors.
(iv)Emergency escape breathing devices17
17  Refer to the Guidelines for the performance, location, use and care of emergency escape breathing devices (MSC/Circ.849)
(1)Emergency escape breathing devices shall comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code. Spare emergency escape breathing devices shall be kept onboard.
(2)All ships shall carry at least two emergency escape breathing devices within accommodation spaces.
(3)In passenger ships, at least two emergency escape breathing devices shall be carried in each main vertical zone.
(4)In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, two emergency escape breathing devices, in addition to those required in paragraph (c)(iv) (3) above, shall be carried in each main vertical zone.
(5)However, paragraphs (c)(iv) (3) and (c)(iv) (4) do not apply to stairway enclosures which constitute individual main vertical zones and for the main vertical zones in the fore or aft end of a ship which do not contain spaces of categories (6), (7), (8) or (12) defined in Regulation 9(b)(ii)(3).
Means of escape from machinery spaces(d)
(i)
Means of escape on passenger ships
Means of escape from each machinery space in passenger ships shall comply with the following provisions.
(1)Escape from spaces below the bulkhead deckWhere the space is below the bulkhead deck the two means of escape shall consist of either:
(A)two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible, leading to doors in the upper part of the space similarly separated and from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. One of these ladders shall be located within a protected enclosure that satisfies Regulation 9(b)(ii)(3), category (2), or Regulation 9(b)(ii)(4), category (4), as appropriate, from the lower part of the space it serves to a safe position outside the space. Self-closing fire doors of the same fire integrity standards shall be fitted in the enclosure. The ladder shall be fixed in such a way that heat is not transferred into the enclosure through non-insulated fixing points. The protected enclosure shall have minimum internal dimensions of at least 800 mm x 800 mm, and shall have emergency lighting provisions; or
(B)one steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from which access is provided to the embarkation deck and additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a position well separated from the ladder referred to, a steel door capable of being operated from each side and which provides access to a safe escape route from the lower part of the space to the embarkation deck.
(2)Escape from spaces above the bulkhead deckWhere the space is above the bulkhead deck, the two means of escape shall be as widely separated as possible and the doors leading from such means of escape shall be in a position from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. Where such means of escape require the use of ladders, these shall be of steel.
(3)Dispensation from two means of escapeIn a ship of less than 1,000 tons, the Director may dispense with one of the means of escape, due regard being paid to the width and disposition of the upper part of the space. In a ship of 1,000 tons and above, the Director may dispense with one means of escape from any such space, including a normally unattended auxiliary machinery space, so long as either a door or a steel ladder provides a safe escape route to the embarkation deck, due regard being paid to the nature and location of the space and whether persons are normally employed in that space. In the steering gear space, a second means of escape shall be provided when the emergency steering position is located in that space unless there is direct access to the open deck.
(4)Escape from machinery control roomsTwo means of escape shall be provided from a machinery control room located within a machinery space, at least one of which will provide continuous fire shelter to a safe position outside the machinery space.
(ii)Means of escape on cargo shipsMeans of escape from each machinery space in cargo ships shall comply with the following provisions.
(1)Escape from machinery spaces of Category AExcept as provided in paragraph (d)(ii) (2), two means of escape shall be provided from each machinery space of Category A. In particular, one of the following provisions shall be complied with:
(A)two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible leading to doors in the upper part of the space similarly separated and from which access is provided to the open deck. One of these ladders shall be located within a protected enclosure that satisfies Regulation 9(b)(iii)(3), category (4), from the lower part of the space it serves to a safe position outside the space. Self-closing fire doors of the same fire integrity standards shall be fitted in the enclosure. The ladder shall be fixed in such a way that heat is not transferred into the enclosure through non-insulated fixing points. The enclosure shall have minimum internal dimensions of at least 800 mm x 800 mm, and shall have emergency lighting provisions; or
(B)one steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from which access is provided to the open deck and, additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a position well separated from the ladder referred to, a steel door capable of being operated from each side and which provides access to a safe escape route from the lower part of the space to the open deck.
(2)Dispensation from two means of escapeIn a ship of less than 1,000 tons, the Director may dispense with one of the means of escape required under paragraph (d)(ii) (1), due regard being paid to the dimension and disposition of the upper part of the space. In addition, the means of escape from machinery spaces of Category A need not comply with the requirement for an enclosed fire shelter listed in paragraph (d)(ii) (1) (A). In the steering gear space, a second means of escape shall be provided when the emergency steering position is located in that space unless there is direct access to the open deck.
(3)Escape from machinery spaces other than those of Category A
From machinery spaces other than those of Category A, two escape routes shall be provided except that a single escape route may be accepted for spaces that are entered only occasionally, and for spaces where the maximum travel distance to the door is 5 m or less.
(iii)Emergency escape breathing devices
(1)On all ships, within the machinery spaces, emergency escape breathing devices shall be situated ready for use at easily visible places, which can be reached quickly and easily at any time in the event of fire. The location of emergency escape breathing devices shall take into account the layout of the machinery space and the number of persons normally working in the spaces.18
18  Refer to the Guidelines for the performance, location, use and care of emergency escape breathing devices (MSC/Circ.849).
(2)The number and location of these devices shall be indicated in the fire control plan required in Regulation 15(b)(iv).
(3)Emergency escape breathing devices shall comply with the Fire Safety Systems Code.
Means of escape on passenger ships from special category and open ro-ro spaces to which any passengers carried can have access(e)
(i)In special category and open ro-ro spaces to which any passengers carried can have access, the number and locations of the means of escape both below and above the bulkhead deck shall be to the satisfaction of the Director and, in general, the safety of access to the embarkation deck shall be at least equivalent to that provided for under paragraphs (c)(ii) (1) (A), (c)(ii) (2), (c)(ii) (4) (A) and (c)(ii) (4) (B). Such spaces shall be provided with designated walkways to the means of escape with a breadth of at least 600 mm. The parking arrangements for the vehicles shall maintain the walkways clear at all times.
(ii)One of the escape routes from the machinery spaces where the crew is normally employed shall avoid direct access to any special category space.
Means of escape from ro-ro spaces(f)At least two means of escape shall be provided in ro-ro spaces where the crew are normally employed. The escape routes shall provide a safe escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks and shall be located at the fore and aft ends of the space.Additional requirements for ro-ro passenger ships(g)
(i)
General
(1)Escape routes shall be provided from every normally occupied space on the ship to an assembly station. These escape routes shall be arranged so as to provide the most direct route possible to the assembly station,19 and shall be marked with symbols based on the guidelines developed by the Organization.20
19  Refer to the Indication of the “assembly stations” in passenger ships (MSC/Circ.777).
20  Refer to the Symbols related to life-saving appliances and arrangements adopted by the Organization by resolution A.760(18).
(2)The escape route from cabins to stairway enclosures shall be as direct as possible, with a minimum number of changes in direction. It shall not be necessary to cross from one side of the ship to the other to reach an escape route. It shall not be necessary to climb more than two decks up or down in order to reach an assembly station or open deck from any passenger space.
(3)External routes shall be provided from open decks, as referred to in paragraph (g)(i) (2), to the survival craft embarkation stations.
(4)Where enclosed spaces adjoin an open deck, openings from the enclosed space to the open deck shall, where practicable, be capable of being used as an emergency exit.
(5)Escape routes shall not be obstructed by furniture and other obstructions. With the exception of tables and chairs which may be cleared to provide open space, cabinets and other heavy furnishings in public spaces and along escape routes shall be secured in place to prevent shifting if the ship rolls or lists. Floor coverings shall also be secured in place. When the ship is underway, escape routes shall be kept clear of obstructions such as cleaning carts, bedding, luggage and boxes of goods.
(ii)Instruction for safe escape
(1)Decks shall be sequentially numbered, starting with “1” at the tank top or lowest deck. The numbers shall be prominently displayed at stair landings and lift lobbies. Decks may also be named, but the deck number shall always be displayed with the name.
(2)Simple “mimic” plans showing the “you are here” position and escape routes marked by arrows, shall be prominently displayed on the inside of each cabin door and in public spaces. The plan shall show the directions of escape and shall be properly oriented in relation to its position on the ship.
(iii)Strength of handrails and corridors
(1)Handrails or other handholds shall be provided in corridors along the entire escape route so that a firm handhold is available at every step of the way, where possible, to the assembly stations and embarkation stations. Such handrails shall be provided on both sides of longitudinal corridors more than 1.8 m in width and transverse corridors more than 1 m in width. Particular attention shall be paid to the need to be able to cross lobbies, atriums and other large open spaces along escape routes. Handrails and other handholds shall be of such strength as to withstand a distributed horizontal load of 750 N/m applied in the direction of the centre of the corridor or space, and a distributed vertical load of 750 N/m applied in the downward direction. The two loads need not be applied simultaneously.
(2)The lowest 0.5 m of bulkheads and other partitions forming vertical divisions along escape routes shall be able to sustain a load of 750 N/m to allow them to be used as walking surfaces from the side of the escape route with the ship at large angles of heel.
(iv)Evacuation analysis21
21  Refer to the Interim Guidelines for a simplified evacuation analysis of ro-ro passenger ships (MSC/Circ.909)
Escape routes shall be evaluated by an evacuation analysis early in the design process. The analysis shall be used to identify and eliminate, as far as practicable, congestion which may develop during an abandonment, due to normal movement of passengers and crew along escape routes, including the possibility that crew may need to move along these routes in a direction opposite the movement of passengers. In addition, the analysis shall be used to demonstrate that escape arrangements are sufficiently flexible to provide for the possibility that certain escape routes, assembly stations, embarkation stations or survival craft may not be available as a result of a casualty.
PART E — OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Regulation 14
Operational Readiness and Maintenance
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to maintain and monitor the effectiveness of the fire safety measures the ship is provided with. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fire protection systems and fire-fighting systems and appliances shall be maintained ready for use; and
(ii)fire protection systems and fire-fighting systems and appliances shall be properly tested and inspected.
General requirements(b)At all times while the ship is in service, the requirements of paragraph (a)(i) shall be complied with. A ship is not in service when:
(1)it is in for repairs or lay-up (either at anchor or in port) or in dry-dock;
(2)it is declared not in service by the owner or the owner’s representative; and
(3)in the case of passenger ships, there are no passengers on board.
(i)Operational readiness
(1)The following fire protection systems shall be kept in good order so as to ensure their required performance if a fire occurs:
(A)structural fire protection including fire resisting divisions, and protection of openings and penetrations in these divisions;
(B)fire detection and fire alarm systems; and
(C)means of escape systems and appliances.
(2)Fire-fighting systems and appliances shall be kept in good working order and readily available for immediate use. Portable extinguishers which have been discharged shall be immediately recharged or replaced with an equivalent unit.
(ii)Maintenance, testing and inspections
(1)Maintenance, testing and inspections shall be carried out based on the guidelines developed by the Organization22 and in a manner having due regard to ensuring the reliability of fire-fighting systems and appliances.
22  Refer to the Guidelines on maintenance and inspection of fire protection systems and appliances (MSC/Circ.850).
(2)The maintenance plan shall be kept on board the ship and shall be available for inspection whenever required by the Director.
(3)The maintenance plan shall include at least the following fire protection systems and fire-fighting systems and appliances, where installed:
(A)fire mains, fire pumps and hydrants including hoses, nozzles and international shore connections;
(B)fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems;
(C)fixed fire-extinguishing systems and other fire-extinguishing appliances;
(D)automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems;
(E)ventilation systems including fire and smoke dampers, fans and their controls;
(F)emergency shut down of fuel supply;
(G)fire doors including their controls;
(H)general emergency alarm systems;
(I)emergency escape breathing devices;
(J)portable fire extinguishers including spare charges; and
(K)fire-fighter’s outfits.
(4)The maintenance programme may be computer-based.
Additional requirements for passenger ships(c)In addition to the fire protection systems and appliances listed in paragraph (b)(ii) (3), ships carrying more than 36 passengers shall develop a maintenance plan for low-location lighting and public address systems.Additional requirements for tankers(d)In addition to the fire protection systems and appliances listed in paragraph (b)(ii) (3), tankers shall develop a maintenance plan for:
(i)inert gas systems;
(ii)deck foam systems;
(iii)fire safety arrangements in cargo pump-rooms; and
(iv)flammable gas detectors.
Regulation 15
Instructions, On board Training and Drills
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to mitigate the consequences of fire by means of proper instructions for training and drills of persons on board in correct procedures under emergency conditions. For this purpose, the crew shall have the necessary knowledge and skills to handle fire emergency cases, including passenger care.General requirements(b)
(i)
Instructions, duties and organization
(1)Crew members shall receive instruction on fire safety on board the ship.
(2)Crew members shall receive instructions on their assigned duties.
(3)Parties responsible for fire-extinguishing shall be organized. These parties shall have the capability to complete their duties at all times while the ship is in service.
(ii)On board training and drills
(1)Crew members shall be trained to be familiar with the arrangements of the ship as well as the location and operation of any fire-fighting systems and appliances that they may be called upon to use.
(2)Training in the use of the emergency escape breathing devices shall be considered as part of on board training.
(3)Performance of crew members assigned fire-fighting duties shall be periodically evaluated by conducting on board training and drills to identify areas in need of improvement, to ensure competency in fire-fighting skills is maintained, and to ensure the operational readiness of the fire-fighting organization.
(4)On board training in the use of the ship’s fire-extinguishing systems and appliances shall be planned and conducted in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 19(d)(i) of Chapter III.
(5)Fire drills shall be conducted and recorded in accordance with the provisions of Regulations 19 (c) and (e) of Chapter III.
(iii)Training manuals
(1)A training manual shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin.
(2)The training manual shall be written in the working language of the ship.
(3)The training manual, which may comprise several volumes, shall contain the instructions and information required in paragraph (b)(iii) (4) in easily understood terms and illustrated wherever possible. Any part of such information may be provided in the form of audio-visual aides in lieu of the manual.
(4)The training manual shall explain the following in detail:
(A)general fire safety practice and precautions related to the dangers of smoking, electrical hazards, flammable liquids and similar common shipboard hazards;
(B)general instructions on fire-fighting activities and fire-fighting procedures including procedures for notification of a fire and use of manually operated call points;
(C)meanings of the ship’s alarms;
(D)operation and use of fire-fighting systems and appliances;
(E)operation and use of fire doors;
(F)operation and use of fire and smoke dampers; and
(G)escape systems and appliances.
(iv)Fire control plans23
23  Refer to the Graphical symbols for fire control plans, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.654(16).
(1)General arrangement plans shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of the ship’s officers, showing clearly for each deck the control stations, the various fire sections enclosed by “A” class divisions, the sections enclosed by “B” class divisions together with particulars of the fire detection and fire alarm systems, the sprinkler installation, the fire-extinguishing appliances, means of access to different compartments, decks, etc., and the ventilating system including particulars of the fan control positions, the position of dampers and identification numbers of the ventilating fans serving each section. Alternatively, at the discretion of the Director, the aforementioned details may be set out in a booklet, a copy of which shall be supplied to each officer, and one copy shall at all times be available on board in an accessible position. Plans and booklets shall be kept up to date; any alterations thereto shall be recorded as soon as practicable. Description in such plans and booklets shall be in the language or languages required by the Director. If the language is neither English nor French, a translation into one of those languages shall be included.
(2)A duplicate set of fire control plans or a booklet containing such plans shall be permanently stored in a prominently marked weathertight enclosure outside the deckhouse for the assistance of shore-side fire-fighting personnel.24
24  Refer to the Guidance concerning the location of fire control plans for assistance of shoreside fire-fighting personnel (MSC/Circ.451).
Additional requirements for passenger ships(c)
(i)
Fire drills
In addition to the requirement of paragraph (b)(ii) (3), fire drills shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 30 of Chapter III having due regard to notification of passengers and movement of passengers to assembly stations and embarkation decks.(ii)Fire control plansIn ships carrying more than 36 passengers, plans and booklets required by this Regulation shall provide information regarding fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction based on the guidelines issued by the Organization.25
25  Refer to the Guidelines on the information to be provided with fire control plans and booklets required by SOLAS Regulations II-2/20 and 41-2, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.756(18).
Regulation 16
Operations
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide information and instructions for proper ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fire safety operational booklets shall be provided on board; and
(ii)flammable vapour releases from cargo tank venting shall be controlled.
Fire safety operational booklets(b)
(i)The required fire safety operational booklet shall contain the necessary information and instructions for the safe operation of the ship and cargo handling operations in relation to fire safety. The booklet shall include information concerning the crew’s responsibilities for the general fire safety of the ship while loading and discharging cargo and while underway. Necessary fire safety precautions for handling general cargoes shall be explained. For ships carrying dangerous goods and flammable bulk cargoes, the fire safety operational booklet shall also provide reference to the pertinent fire-fighting and emergency cargo handling instructions contained in the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, the International Bulk Chemical Code, the International Gas Carrier Code and the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, as appropriate.
(ii)The fire safety operational booklet shall be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin.
(iii)The fire safety operational booklet shall be written in the working language of the ship.
(iv)The fire safety operational booklet may be combined with the training manuals required in Regulation 15(b)(3).
Additional requirements for tankers(c)
(i)
General
The fire safety operational booklet referred to in paragraph (b) shall include provisions for preventing fire spread to the cargo area due to ignition of flammable vapours and include procedures of cargo tank gas-purging and/or gas-freeing taking into account the provisions in paragraph (c)(ii).(ii)Procedures for cargo tank purging and/or gas-freeing
(1)When the ship is provided with an inert gas system, the cargo tanks shall first be purged in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 4(e)(vi) until the concentration of hydrocarbon vapours in the cargo tanks has been reduced to less than 2% by volume. Thereafter, gas-freeing may take place at the cargo tank deck level.
(2)When the ship is not provided with an inert gas system, the operation shall be such that the flammable vapour is discharged initially through:
(A)the vent outlets as specified in Regulation 4(e)(iii)(4);
(B)outlets at least 2 m above the cargo tank deck level with a vertical efflux velocity of at least 30 m/s maintained during the gas-freeing operation; or
(C)outlets at least 2 m above the cargo tank deck level with a vertical efflux velocity of at least 20 m/s and which are protected by suitable devices to prevent the passage of flame.
(3)The above outlets shall be located not less than 10 m measured horizontally from the nearest air intakes and openings to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck machinery, which may include anchor windlass and chain locker openings, and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard.
(4)When the flammable vapour concentration at the outlet has been reduced to 30% of the lower flammable limit, gas-freeing may be continued at cargo tank deck level.
PART F — ALTERNATIVE DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENTS
Regulation 17
Alternative Design and Arrangements
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide a methodology for alternative design and arrangements for fire safety.General(b)
(i)Fire safety design and arrangements may deviate from the prescriptive requirements set out in parts B, C, D, E or G, provided that the design and arrangements meet the fire safety objectives and the functional requirements.
(ii)When fire safety design or arrangements deviate from the prescriptive requirements of this Chapter, engineering analysis, evaluation and approval of the alternative design and arrangements shall be carried out in accordance with this Regulation.
Engineering analysis(c)The engineering analysis shall be prepared and submitted to the Director, based on the guidelines developed by the Organization26 and shall include, as a minimum, the following elements:
26  Refer to the Guidelines to be developed by the Organization.
(i)determination of the ship type and space(s) concerned;
(ii)identification of prescriptive requirement(s) with which the ship or the space(s) will not comply;
(iii)identification of the fire and explosion hazards of the ship or the space(s) concerned;
(1)identification of the possible ignition sources;
(2)identification of the fire growth potential of each space concerned;
(3)identification of the smoke and toxic effluent generation potential for each space concerned;
(4)identification of the potential for the spread of fire, smoke or of toxic effluents from the space(s) concerned to other spaces;
(iv)determination of the required fire safety performance criteria for the ships or the space(s) concerned addressed by the prescriptive requirement(s);
(1)performance criteria shall be based on the fire safety objectives and on the functional requirements of this Chapter;
(2)performance criteria shall provide a degree of safety not less than that achieved by using the prescriptive requirements; and
(3)performance criteria shall be quantifiable and measurable;
(v)detailed description of the alternative design and arrangements, including a list of the assumptions used in the design and any proposed operational restrictions or conditions; and
(vi)technical justification demonstrating that the alternative design and arrangements meet the required fire safety performance criteria.
Evaluation of the alternative design and arrangements(d)
(i)The engineering analysis required in paragraph (c) shall be evaluated and approved by the Director taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization.27
27  Refer to the Guidelines to be developed by the Organization.
(ii)A copy of the documentation, as approved by the Director, indicating that the alternative design and arrangements comply with this Regulation shall be carried on board the ship.
Exchange of information(e)The Director shall communicate to the Organization pertinent information concerning alternative design and arrangements approved by them for circulation to all Contracting States.Re-evaluation due to change of conditions(f)If the assumptions, and operational restrictions that were stipulated in the alternative design and arrangements are changed, the engineering analysis shall be carried out under the changed condition and shall be approved by the Director.
PART G — SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
Regulation 18
Helicopter Facilities
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide additional measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this Chapter for ships fitted with special facilities for helicopters. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)helideck structure must be adequate to protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations;
(ii)fire-fighting appliances shall be provided to adequately protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations;
(iii)refuelling and hangar facilities and operations shall provide the necessary measures to protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with helicopter operations; and
(iv)operation manuals and training shall be provided.
Application(b)
(i)In addition to complying with the requirements of Regulations in parts B, C, D and E, as appropriate, ships equipped with helidecks shall comply with the requirements of this Regulation.
(ii)Where helicopters land or conduct winching operations on an occasional or emergency basis on ships without helidecks, fire-fighting equipment fitted in accordance with the requirements in Part C may be used. This equipment shall be made readily available in close proximity to the landing or winching areas during helicopter operations.
(iii)Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (b)(ii) above, ro-ro passenger ships without helidecks shall comply with Regulation 28 of Chapter III.
Structure(c)
(i)
Construction of steel or other equivalent material
In general, the construction of the helidecks shall be of steel or other equivalent materials. If the helideck forms the deckhead of a deckhouse or superstructure, it shall be insulated to “A-60” class standard.(ii)Construction of aluminium or other low melting point metalsIf the Director permits aluminium or other low melting point metal construction that is not made equivalent to steel, the following provisions shall be satisfied:
(1)if the platform is cantilevered over the side of the ship, after each fire on the ship or on the platform, the platform shall undergo a structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use; and
(2)if the platform is located above the ship’s deckhouse or similar structure, the following conditions shall be satisfied:
(A)the deckhouse top and bulkheads under the platform shall have no openings;
(B)windows under the platform shall be provided with steel shutters; and
(C)after each fire on the platform or in close proximity, the platform shall undergo a structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use.
Means of escape(d)A helideck shall be provided with both a main and an emergency means of escape and access for fire-fighting and rescue personnel. These shall be located as far apart from each other as is practicable and preferably on opposite sides of the helideck.Fire-fighting appliances(e)
(i)In close proximity to the helideck, the following fire-fighting appliances shall be provided and stored near the means of access to that helideck:
(1)at least two dry powder extinguishers having a total capacity of not less than 45 kg;
(2)carbon dioxide extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg or equivalent;
(3)a suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or foam making branch pipes capable of delivering foam to all parts of the helideck in all weather conditions in which helicopters can operate. The system shall be capable of delivering a discharge rate as required in table 18.1 for at least five minutes;
Table 18.1 — Foam discharge rate
Category
 
Helicopter overall length
 
Discharge rate foam solution (litres/min)
H1
 
up to but not including 15 m
 
250
H2
 
from 15 m up to but not including 24 m
 
500
H3
 
from 24 m up to but not including 35 m
 
800
(4)the principal agent shall be suitable for use with salt water and conform to performance standards not inferior to those acceptable to the Organization;28
28  Refer to the International Civil Aviation Organization Airport Services Manual, Part 1 — Rescue and Fire fighting, Chapter 8 — Extinguishing Agent Characteristics, Paragraph 8.1.5 — Foam Specifications Table 8-1, Level “B”.
(5)at least two nozzles of an approved dual-purpose type (jet/spray) and hoses sufficient to reach any part of the helideck;
(6)in addition to the requirements of Regulation 10(j), two sets of fire-fighter’s outfits; and
(7)at least the following equipment shall be stored in a manner that provides for immediate use and protection from the elements:
—  –adjustable wrench;
—  –blanket, fire resistant;
—  –cutters, bolt 60 cm;
—  –hook, grab or salving;
—  –hacksaw, heavy duty complete with 6 spare blades;
—  –ladder;
—  –lift line 5 mm diameter x 15 m in length;
—  –pliers, side cutting;
—  –set of assorted screwdrivers; and
—  –harness knife complete with sheath.
Drainage facilities(f)Drainage facilities in way of helidecks shall be constructed of steel and shall lead directly overboard independent of any other system and shall be designed so that drainage does not fall onto any part of the ship.Helicopter refuelling and hangar facilities(g)Where the ship has helicopter refuelling and hangar facilities, the following requirements shall be complied with:
(i)a designated area shall be provided for the storage of fuel tanks which shall be:
(1)as remote as is practicable from accommodation spaces, escape routes and embarkation stations; and
(2)isolated from areas containing a source of vapour ignition;
(ii)the fuel storage area shall be provided with arrangements whereby fuel spillage may be collected and drained to a safe location;
(iii)tanks and associated equipment shall be protected against physical damage and from a fire in an adjacent space or area;
(iv)where portable fuel storage tanks are used, special attention shall be given to:
(1)design of the tank for its intended purpose;
(2)mounting and securing arrangements;
(3)electric bonding; and
(4)inspection procedures;
(v)storage tank fuel pumps shall be provided with means which permit shutdown from a safe remote location in the event of a fire. Where a gravity fuelling system is installed, equivalent closing arrangements shall be provided to isolate the fuel source;
(vi)the fuel pumping unit shall be connected to one tank at a time. The piping between the tank and the pumping unit shall be of steel or equivalent material, as short as possible, and protected against damage;
(vii)electrical fuel pumping units and associated control equipment shall be of a type suitable for the location and potential hazards;
(viii)fuel pumping units shall incorporate a device which will prevent over-pressurization of the delivery or filling hose;
(ix)equipment used in refuelling operations shall be electrically bonded;
(x)“NO SMOKING” signs shall be displayed at appropriate locations;
(xi)hangar, refuelling and maintenance facilities shall be treated as Category A machinery spaces with regard to structural fire protection, fixed fire-extinguishing and detection system requirements;
(xii)enclosed hangar facilities or enclosed spaces containing refuelling installations shall be provided with mechanical ventilation, as required by Regulation 20(c) for closed ro-ro spaces of cargo ships. Ventilation fans shall be of non-sparking type; and
(xiii)electric equipment and wiring in enclosed hangar or enclosed spaces containing refuelling installations shall comply with Regulations 20 (c)(ii), (iii) and (iv).
Operations manual and fire-fighting service(h)
(i)Each helicopter facility shall have an operations manual, including a description and a checklist of safety precautions, procedures and equipment requirements. This manual may be part of the ship’s emergency response procedures.
(ii)The procedures and precautions to be followed during refuelling operations shall be in accordance with recognized safe practices and contained in the operations manual.
(iii)Fire-fighting personnel consisting of at least two persons trained for rescue and fire-fighting duties and fire-fighting equipment shall be immediately available at all times when helicopter operations are expected.
(iv)Fire-fighting personnel shall be present during refuelling operations. However, the fire-fighting personnel shall not be involved with refuelling activities.
(v)On board refresher training shall be carried out and additional supplies of fire-fighting media shall be provided for training and testing of the equipment.
Regulation 19
Carriage of Dangerous Goods29
Purpose(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this Chapter for ships carrying dangerous goods. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fire protection systems shall be provided to protect the ship from the added fire hazards associated with carriage of dangerous goods;
(ii)dangerous goods shall be adequately separated from ignition sources; and
(iii)appropriate personnel protective equipment shall be provided for the hazards associated with the carriage of dangerous goods.
General requirements(b)
(i)In addition to complying with the requirements of Regulations in parts B, C, D, E and Regulations 18 and 2030, as appropriate, ship types and cargo spaces, referred to in paragraph (b)(ii), intended for the carriage of dangerous goods shall comply with the requirements of this Regulation, as appropriate, except when carrying dangerous goods in limited quantities31 unless such requirements have already been met by compliance with the requirements elsewhere in this Chapter. The types of ships and modes of carriage of dangerous goods are referred to in paragraph (b)(ii) and in table 19.1. Cargo ships of less than 500 tons shall comply with this Regulation, but the Director may reduce the requirements and such reduced requirements shall be recorded in the document of compliance referred to in paragraph (d).
30  Refer to part 7 of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
31  Refer to Chapter 3.4 of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
(ii)The following ship types and cargo spaces shall govern the application of tables 19.1 and 19.2:
(1)ships and cargo spaces not specifically designed for the carriage of freight containers, but intended for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form including goods in freight containers and portable tanks;
(2)purpose-built container ships and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods in freight containers and portable tanks;
(3)ro-ro ships and ro-ro spaces intended for the carriage of dangerous goods;
(4)ships and cargo spaces intended for the carriage of solid dangerous goods in bulk; and
(5)ships and cargo spaces intended for carriage of dangerous goods other than liquids and gases in bulk in shipborne barges.
Special requirements(c)Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements shall govern the application of tables 19.1, 19.2 and 19.3 to both “on-deck” and “under-deck” stowage of dangerous goods where the numbers of the following paragraphs are indicated in the first column of the tables.
(i)Water supplies
(1)Arrangements shall be made to ensure immediate availability of a supply of water from the fire main at the required pressure either by permanent pressurization or by suitably placed remote arrangements for the fire pumps.
(2)The quantity of water delivered shall be capable of supplying four nozzles of a size and at pressures as specified in Regulation 10(b), capable of being trained on any part of the cargo space when empty. This amount of water may be applied by equivalent means to the satisfaction of the Director.
(3)Means shall be provided for effectively cooling the designated underdeck cargo space by at least 5 litres/min per square metre of the horizontal area of cargo spaces, either by a fixed arrangement of spraying nozzles or flooding the cargo space with water. Hoses may be used for this purpose in small cargo spaces and in small areas of larger cargo spaces at the discretion of the Director. However, the drainage and pumping arrangements shall be such as to prevent the build-up of free surfaces. The drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles. The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment. If this is not possible, the adverse effect upon stability of the added weight and free surface of water shall be taken into account to the extent deemed necessary by the Director in its approval of the stability information.32
32  Refer to the Recommendation on fixed fire-extinguishing systems for special cargo spaces adopted by the Organization by resolution A.123(V).
(4)Provision to flood a designated under-deck cargo space with suitable specified media may be substituted for the requirements in paragraph (c)(i) (3).
(5)The total required capacity of the water supply shall satisfy paragraphs (c)(i) (2) and (c)(i) (3), if applicable, simultaneously calculated for the largest designated cargo space. The capacity requirements of paragraph (c)(i) (2) shall be met by the total capacity of the main fire pump(s) not including the capacity of the emergency fire pump, if fitted. If a drencher system is used to satisfy paragraph (c)(i) (3), the drencher pump shall also be taken into account in this total capacity calculation.
(ii)Sources of ignitionElectrical equipment and wiring shall not be fitted in enclosed cargo spaces or vehicle spaces unless it is essential for operational purposes in the opinion of the Director. However, if electrical equipment is fitted in such spaces, it shall be of a certified safe type33 for use in the dangerous environments to which it may be exposed unless it is possible to completely isolate the electrical system (e.g. by removal of links in the system, other than fuses). Cable penetrations of the decks and bulkheads shall be sealed against the passage of gas or vapour. Through runs of cables and cables within the cargo spaces shall be protected against damage from impact. Any other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of flammable vapour shall not be permitted.
33  Refer to the recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission, in particular, publication IEC 60092 on Electrical installations in ships.
(iii)Detection systemRo-ro spaces shall be fitted with a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code. All other types of cargo spaces shall be fitted with either a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system or a sample extraction smoke detection system complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code. If a sample extraction smoke detection system is fitted, particular attention shall be made to paragraph 2.1.3 in Chapter 10 of the Fire Safety Systems Code in order to prevent the leakage of toxic fumes into occupied areas.
(iv)Ventilation
(1)Adequate power ventilation shall be provided in enclosed cargo spaces. The arrangement shall be such as to provide for at least six air changes per hour in the cargo space based on an empty cargo space and for removal of vapours from the upper or lower parts of the cargo space, as appropriate.
(2)The fans shall be such as to avoid the possibility of ignition of flammable gas air mixtures. Suitable wire mesh guards shall be fitted over inlet and outlet ventilation openings.
(3)Natural ventilation shall be provided in enclosed cargo spaces intended for the carriage of solid dangerous goods in bulk, where there is no provision for mechanical ventilation.
(v)Bilge pumping
(1)Where it is intended to carry flammable or toxic liquids in enclosed cargo spaces, the bilge pumping system shall be designed to protect against inadvertent pumping of such liquids through machinery space piping or pumps. Where large quantities of such liquids are carried, consideration shall be given to the provision of additional means of draining those cargo spaces.
(2)If the bilge drainage system is additional to the system served by pumps in the machinery space, the capacity of the system shall be not less than 10 m3/h per cargo space served. If the additional system is common, the capacity need not exceed 25 m3/h. The additional bilge system need not be arranged with redundancy.
(3)Whenever flammable or toxic liquids are carried, the bilge line into the machinery space shall be isolated either by fitting a blank flange or by a closed lockable valve.
(4)Enclosed spaces outside machinery spaces containing bilge pumps serving cargo spaces intended for carriage of flammable or toxic liquids should be fitted with separate mechanical ventilation giving at least 6 air changes per hour. If the space has access from another enclosed space, the door shall be self-closing.
(5)If bilge drainage of cargo spaces is arranged by gravity drainage, the drainage shall be either led directly overboard or to a closed drain tank located outside the machinery spaces. The tank shall be provided with a vent pipe to a safe location on the open deck. Drainage from a cargo space into bilge wells in a lower space is only permitted if that space satisfies the same requirements as the cargo space above.
(vi)Personnel protection
(1)Four sets of full protective clothing resistant to chemical attack shall be provided in addition to the fire-fighter’s outfits required by Regulation 10(j). The protective clothing shall cover all skin, so that no part of the body is unprotected.
(2)At least two self-contained breathing apparatuses additional to those required by Regulation 10 shall be provided. Two spare charges suitable for use with the breathing apparatus shall be provided for each required apparatus. Passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers and cargo ships that are equipped with suitably located means for fully recharging the air cylinders free from contamination, need carry only one spare charge for each required apparatus.
(vii)Portable fire extinguishersPortable fire extinguishers with a total capacity of at least 12 kg of dry powder or equivalent shall be provided for the cargo spaces. These extinguishers shall be in addition to any portable fire extinguishers required elsewhere in this Chapter.
(viii)Insulation of machinery space boundariesBulkheads forming boundaries between cargo spaces and machinery spaces of Category A shall be insulated to “A-60” class standard, unless the dangerous goods are stowed at least 3 m horizontally away from such bulkheads. Other boundaries between such spaces shall be insulated to “A-60” class standard.
(ix)Water spray systemEach open ro-ro space having a deck above it and each space deemed to be a closed ro-ro space not capable of being sealed, shall be fitted with an approved fixed pressure water-spraying system for manual operation which shall protect all parts of any deck and vehicle platform in the space, except that the Director may permit the use of any other fixed fire-extinguishing system that has been shown by full-scale test to be no less effective. However, the drainage and pumping arrangements shall be such as to prevent the build-up of free surfaces. The drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles. The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment. If this is not possible the adverse effect upon stability of the added weight and free surface of water shall be taken into account to the extent deemed necessary by the Director in its approval of the stability information.34
34  Refer to the Recommendation on fixed fire-extinguishing systems for special cargo spaces adopted by the Organization by resolution A.123(V).
(x)Separation of ro-ro spaces
(1)In ships having ro-ro spaces, a separation shall be provided between a closed ro-ro space and an adjacent open ro-ro space. The separation shall be such as to minimize the passage of dangerous vapours and liquids between such spaces. Alternatively, such separation need not be provided if the ro-ro space is considered to be a closed cargo space over its entire length and shall fully comply with the relevant special requirements of this Regulation.
(2)In ships having ro-ro spaces, a separation shall be provided between a closed ro-ro space and the adjacent weather deck. The separation shall be such as to minimize the passage of dangerous vapours and liquids between such spaces. Alternatively, a separation need not be provided if the arrangements of the closed ro-ro spaces are in accordance with those required for the dangerous goods carried on adjacent weather deck.
Document of compliance35
35  Refer to the Document of compliance with the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods under the provisions of Regulation II-2/54 of SOLAS 74, as amended (MSC/Circ.642)
(d)An appropriate document issued by the Director or an authorised organisation as evidence of compliance of construction and equipment with the requirements of this Regulation shall be carried on board. Certification for dangerous goods, except solid dangerous goods in bulk, is not required for those cargoes specified as class 6.2 and 7 and dangerous goods in limited quantities.
Table 19.1 — Application of the Requirements to Different Modes of Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships and Cargo Spaces
Where X appears in table 19.1 it means this requirement is applicable to all classes of dangerous goods as given in the appropriate line of table 19.3, except as indicated by the notes.
UNKNOWN
Notes:
(1)For classes 4 and 5.1 not applicable to closed freight containers.
For classes 2, 3, 6.1 and 8 when carried in closed freight containers the ventilation rate may be reduced to not less than two air changes. For the purpose of this requirement a portable tank is a closed freight container.
(2)Applicable to decks only.
(3)Applies only to closed ro-ro spaces, not capable of being sealed.
(4)In the special case where the barges are capable of containing flammable vapours or alternatively if they are capable of discharging flammable vapours to a safe space outside the barge carrier compartment by means of ventilation ducts connected to the barges, these requirements may be reduced or waived to the satisfaction of the Director.
(5)Special category spaces shall be treated as closed ro-ro spaces when dangerous goods are carried.
TABLE 19.2 — APPLICATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS TO DIFFERENT CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS FOR SHIPS AND CARGO SPACES CARRYING SOLID DANGEROUS GOODS IN BULK
Class
 
4.1
 
4.2
 
4.3 6
 
5.1
 
6.1
 
8
 
9
Regulation 19
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.1.1
 
X
 
X
 
 
X
 
 
 
X
3.1.2
 
X
 
X
 
 
X
 
 
 
X
3.2
 
X
 
X 7
 
X
 
X 8
 
 
 
X8
3.4.1
 
 
X 7
 
X
 
 
 
 
3.4.2
 
X 9
 
X 7
 
X
 
X 7,9
 
 
 
X7,9
3.4.3
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
3.6
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X
3.8
 
X
 
X
 
X
 
X7
 
 
 
X10
Notes:
(6)The hazards of substances in this class which may be carried in bulk are such that special consideration must be given by the Director to the construction and equipment of the ship involved in addition to meeting the requirements enumerated in this table.
(7)Only applicable to Seedcake containing solvent extractions, to Ammonium nitrate and to Ammonium nitrate fertilizers.
(8)Only applicable to Ammonium nitrate and to Ammonium nitrate fertilizers. However, a degree of protection in accordance with standards contained in the International Electrotechnical Commission publication 60079, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, is sufficient.
(9)Only suitable wire mesh guards are required.
(10)The requirements of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes adopted by resolution A.434(XI), as amended, are sufficient.
Table 19.3 — Application of the Requirements to Different Classes of Dangerous Goods Except Solid Dangerous Goods in Bulk
UNKNOWN
Notes:
(11)When “mechanically-ventilated spaces” are required by the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, as amended.
(12)Stow 3 m horizontally away from the machinery space boundaries in all cases.
(13)Refer to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, as amended.
(14)As appropriate to the goods to be carried.
(15)Refers to flashpoint.
Regulation 20
Protection of Vehicle, Special Category and Ro-ro Spaces
Purpose
(a)The purpose of this Regulation is to provide additional safety measures in order to address the fire safety objectives of this Chapter for ships fitted with vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces. For this purpose, the following functional requirements shall be met:
(i)fire protection systems shall be provided to adequately protect the ship from the fire hazards associated with vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces;
(ii)ignition sources shall be separated from vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces; and
(iii)vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces shall be adequately ventilated.
General requirements
(b)
(i)Application
In addition to complying with the requirements of Regulations in parts B, C, D and E, as appropriate, vehicle, special category and ro-ro spaces shall comply with the requirements of this Regulation.
(ii)Basic principles for passenger ships
(1)The basic principle underlying the provisions of this Regulation is that the main vertical zoning required by Regulation 9(b) may not be practicable in vehicle spaces of passenger ships and, therefore, equivalent protection must be obtained in such spaces on the basis of a horizontal zone concept and by the provision of an efficient fixed fire-extinguishing system. Based on this concept, a horizontal zone for the purpose of this Regulation may include special category spaces on more than one deck provided that the total overall clear height for vehicles does not exceed 10 m.
(2)The basic principle underlying the provisions of paragraph (b)(ii) (1) are also applicable to ro-ro spaces.
(3)The requirements of ventilation systems, openings in “A” class divisions and penetrations in “A” class divisions for maintaining the integrity of vetical zones in this Chapter shall be applied equally to decks and bulkheads forming the boundaries separating horizontal zones from each other and from the remainder of the ship.
Precaution against ignition of flammable vapours in closed vehicle spaces, closed ro-ro spaces and special category spaces
(c)
(i)Ventilation systems
(1)Capacity of ventilation systems
There shall be provided an effective power ventilation system sufficient to give at least the following air changes:
 
(A) Passenger ships
 
 
 
Special category spaces
 
10 air changes per hour
 
Closed ro-ro and vehicle spaces other than special category spaces for ships carrying more than 36 passengers
 
10 air changes per hour
 
Closed ro-ro and vehicle spaces other than special category spaces for ships carrying not more than 36 passengers
 
6 air changes per hour.
 
(B) Cargo ships
 
6 air changes per hour.
 
 
 
 
The Director may require an increased number of air changes when vehicles are being loaded and unloaded.
(2)Performance of ventilation systems
(A)In passenger ships, the power ventilation system required in paragraph (c)(i) (1) shall be separate from other ventilation systems and shall be in operation at all times when vehicles are in such spaces. Ventilation ducts serving such cargo spaces capable of being effectively sealed shall be separated for each such space. The system shall be capable of being controlled from a position outside such spaces.
(B)In cargo ships, ventilation fans shall normally be run continuously whenever vehicles are on board. Where this is impracticable, they shall be operated for a limited period daily as weather permits and in any case for a reasonable period prior to discharge, after which period the ro-ro or vehicle space shall be proved gas-free. One or more portable combustible gas detecting instruments shall be carried for this purpose. The system shall be entirely separate from other ventilating systems. Ventilation ducts serving ro-ro or vehicle spaces shall be capable of being effectively sealed for each cargo space. The system shall be capable of being controlled from a position outside such spaces.
(C)The ventilation system shall be such as to prevent air stratification and the formation of air pockets.
(3)Indication of ventilation systems
Means shall be provided on the navigation bridge to indicate any loss of the required ventilating capacity.
(4)Closing appliances and ducts
(A)Arrangements shall be provided to permit a rapid shutdown and effective closure of the ventilation system from outside of the space in case of fire, taking into account the weather and sea conditions.
(B)Ventilation ducts, including dampers, within a common horizontal zone shall be made of steel. In passenger ships, ventilation ducts that pass through other horizontal zones or machinery spaces shall be “A-60” class steel ducts constructed in accordance with Regulations 9 (g)(ii) (1) (A) and (B).
(5)Permanent openings
Permanent openings in the side plating, the ends or deckhead of the space shall be so situated that a fire in the cargo space does not endanger stowage areas and embarkation stations for survival craft and accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations in superstructures and deckhouses above the cargo spaces.
(ii)Electrical equipment and wiring
(1)Except as provided in paragraph (c)(ii) (2), electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type suitable for use in an explosive petrol and air mixture.36
36  Refer to the recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission, in particular publication 60079.
(2)In case of other than special category spaces below the bulkhead deck, notwithstanding the provisions in paragraph (c)(ii) (1), above a height of 450 mm from the deck and from each platform for vehicles, if fitted, except platforms with openings of sufficient size permitting penetration of petrol gases downwards, electrical equipment of a type so enclosed and protected as to prevent the escape of sparks shall be permitted as an alternative on condition that the ventilation system is so designed and operated as to provide continuous ventilation of the cargo spaces at the rate of at least ten air changes per hour whenever vehicles are on board.
(iii)Electrical equipment and wiring in exhaust ventilation ducts
Electrical equipment and wiring, if installed in an exhaust ventilation duct, shall be of a type approved for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures and the outlet from any exhaust duct shall be sited in a safe position, having regard to other possible sources of ignition.
(iv)Other ignition sources
Other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of flammable vapours shall not be permitted.
(v)Scuppers and discharges
Scuppers shall not be led to machinery or other spaces where sources of ignition may be present.
Detection and alarm
(d)
(i)Fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems
Except as provided in paragraph (d)(iii) (1), there shall be provided a fixed fire detection and fire alarm system complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code. The fixed fire detection system shall be capable of rapidly detecting the onset of fire. The type of detectors and their spacing and location shall be to the satisfaction of the Director taking into account the effects of ventilation and other relevant factors. After being installed the system shall be tested under normal ventilation conditions and shall give an overall response time to the satisfaction of the Director.
(ii)Sample extraction smoke detection systems
Except open ro-ro spaces, open vehicle spaces and special category spaces, a sample extraction smoke detection system complying with the requirements of the Fire Safety Systems Code may be used as an alternative of the fixed fire detection and fire alarm system required in paragraph (d)(i).
(iii)Special category spaces
(1)An efficient fire patrol system shall be maintained in special category spaces. However, if an efficient fire patrol system is maintained by a continuous fire watch at all times during the voyage, a fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems is not required.
(2)Manually operated call points shall be spaced so that no part of the space is more than 20 m from a manually operated call point, and one shall be placed close to each exit from such spaces.
Structural protection
(e)Notwithstanding the provisions of Regulation 9(b)(ii), in passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the boundary bulkheads and decks of special category spaces and ro-ro spaces shall be insulated to “A-60” class standard. However, where a category (5), (9) or (10) space, as defined in Regulation 9(b)(ii)(3), is on one side of the division the standard may be reduced to “A-0”. Where fuel oil tanks are below a special category space or a ro-ro space, the integrity of the deck between such spaces may be reduced to “A-0” standard.
Fire-extinction
(f)
(i)Fixed fire-extinguishing systems37
37  Refer to the Guidelines when approving alternative fixed water-based fire-fighting systems for use in special category spaces (MSC/Circ.914).
(1)Vehicle spaces and ro-ro spaces which are not special category spaces and are capable of being sealed from a location outside of the cargo spaces shall be fitted with a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system which shall comply with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, except that:
(A)if a carbon dioxide system is fitted, the quantity of gas available shall be at least sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 45% of the gross volume of the largest such cargo space which is capable of being sealed, and the arrangements shall be such as to ensure that at least two thirds of the gas required for the relevant space shall be introduced within 10 min;
(B)any other fixed inert gas fire-extinguishing system or fixed high expansion foam fire-extinguishing system may be fitted provided the Director is satisfied that an equivalent protection is achieved; and
(C)as an alternative, a system meeting the requirements of paragraph (f)(i) (2) may be fitted.
(2)Ro-ro and vehicle spaces not capable of being sealed and special category spaces shall be fitted with an approved fixed pressure water spraying system38 for manual operation which shall protect all parts of any deck and vehicle platform in such spaces. Such water spray systems shall have:
38  Refer to the Recommendation on fixed fire-extinguishing systems for special cargo spaces adopted by the Organization by resolution A.123(V).
(A)a pressure gauge on the valve manifold;
(B)clear marking on each manifold valve indicating the spaces served;
(C)instructions for maintenance and operation located in the valve room; and
(D)a sufficient number of drainage valves.
(3)The Director may permit the use of any other fixed fire-extinguishing system39 that has been shown that it is not less effective by a full-scale test in conditions simulating a flowing petrol fire in a vehicle space or a ro-ro space in controlling fires likely to occur in such a space.
39  Refer to the Guidelines when approving alternative fixed water-based fire-fighting systems for use in special category spaces (MSC/Circ.914).
(4)When fixed pressure water-spraying systems are provided, in view of the serious loss of stability which could arise due to large quantities of water accumulating on the deck or decks during the operation of the fixed pressure water-spraying system, the following arrangements shall be provided:
(A)in passenger ships:
(I)in the spaces above the bulkhead deck, scuppers shall be fitted so as to ensure that such water is rapidly discharged directly overboard;
(II)(1) in ro-ro passenger ships discharge valves for scuppers, fitted with positive means of closing operable from a position above the bulkhead deck in accordance with the requirements of the International Convention on Load Lines in force, shall be kept open while the ships are at sea;
(II)(2) any operation of valves referred to in paragraph (f)(i) (4) (A) (II) (1) shall be recorded in the official logbook;
(III)in the spaces below the bulkhead deck, the Director may require pumping and drainage facilities to be provided additional to the requirements of Regulation 21 of Chapter II-1. In such case, the drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles. The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment;
(B)in cargo ships, the drainage and pumping arrangements shall be such as to prevent the build-up of free surfaces. In such case, the drainage system shall be sized to remove no less than 125% of the combined capacity of both the water spraying system pumps and the required number of fire hose nozzles. The drainage system valves shall be operable from outside the protected space at a position in the vicinity of the extinguishing system controls. Bilge wells shall be of sufficient holding capacity and shall be arranged at the side shell of the ship at a distance from each other of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment. If this is not possible the adverse effect upon stability of the added weight and free surface of water shall be taken into account to the extent deemed necessary by the Director in its approval of the stability information.40 Such information shall be included in the stability information supplied to the master as required by Regulation 22 of Chapter II-1.
40  Refer to the Recommendation on fixed fire-extinguishing systems for special cargo spaces adopted by the Organization by resolution A.123(V).
(ii)Portable fire extinguishers
(1)Portable extinguishers shall be provided at each deck level in each hold or compartment where vehicles are carried, spaced not more than 20 m apart on both sides of the space. At least one portable fire extinguisher shall be located at each access to such a cargo space.
(2)In addition to the provision of paragraph (f)(ii) (1), the following fire-extinguishing appliances shall be provided in vehicle, ro-ro and special category spaces intended for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion:
(A)at least three water-fog applicators; and
(B)one portable foam applicator unit complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, provided that at least two such units are available in the ship for use in such ro-ro spaces.”.
Amendment of Regulation 2 of Chapter IV
7.  Regulation 2 of Chapter IV of the principal Regulations is amended —
(a)by inserting, immediately after sub-paragraph (xv) of paragraph (a), the following sub-paragraph:
(xvi)“Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) identities” means maritime mobile services identity, the ship’s call sign, Inmarsat identities and serial number identity which may be transmitted by the ship’s equipment and used to identify the ship.”.
(b)by deleting paragraph (b) and substituting the following paragraph:
(b)All other terms and abbreviations which are used in this Chapter and which are defined in the Radio Regulations and in the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR), 1979, as may be amended, shall have the meanings as defined in those Regulations and the SAR Convention.”.
New Regulation 5-1 of Chapter IV
8.  The principal Regulations are amended by inserting, immediately after Regulation 5 of Chapter IV, the following Regulation:
Regulation 5-1Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Identities
(a)This Regulation applies to all ships on all voyages.
(b)The master or owner of every ship shall register their Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) identities with the Director.”.
Amendment of Regulation 13 of Chapter IV
9.  Paragraph (h) of Regulation 13 of Chapter IV of the principal Regulations is amended by inserting, immediately after the word “Chapter”, the words “, including the navigation receiver referred to in Regulation 18,”.
Amendment of Regulation 15 of Chapter IV
10.  Regulation 15 of Chapter IV of the principal Regulations is amended by inserting, immediately after paragraph (h), the following paragraph:
(i)Satellite EPIRBs shall be tested at intervals not exceeding 12 months for all aspects of operational efficiency with particular emphasis on frequency stability, signal strength and coding. However, in cases where it appears proper and reasonable, the Director may extend this period to 17 months. The test may be conducted on board the ship or at an approved testing or servicing station.”.
New Regulation 18 of Chapter IV
11.  The principal Regulations are amended by inserting, immediately after Regulation 17 of Chapter IV, the following Regulation:
Regulation 18Position-updating
All two-way communication equipment carried on board a ship to which this Chapter applies which is capable of automatically including the ship’s position in the distress alert shall be automatically provided with this information from an internal or external navigation receiver, if either is installed. If such a receiver is not installed, the ship’s position and the time at which the position was determined shall be manually updated at intervals not exceeding four hours, while the ship is underway, so that it is always ready for transmission by the equipment.”.
Deletion and substitution of Chapter V
12.  Chapter V of the principal Regulations is deleted and the following Chapter substituted therefor:
Chapter VSafety of Navigation
Regulation 1Application
(a)Unless expressly provided otherwise, this Chapter shall apply to all ships on all voyages, except:
(i)warships, naval auxiliaries and other ships owned or operated by a Contracting State and used only on government non-commercial service; and
(ii)ships solely navigating the Great Lakes of North America and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as the lower exit of the St. Lambert Lock at Montreal in the Province of Quebec, Canada.
However, warships, naval auxiliaries or other ships owned or operated by a Contracting State and used only on government non-commercial service are encouraged to act in a manner consistent, so far as reasonable and practicable, with this Chapter.
(b)The Director may decide to what extent this Chapter shall apply to ships operating solely in waters landward of the baselines which are established in accordance with international law.
(c)A rigidly connected composite unit of a pushing vessel and associated pushed vessel, when designed as a dedicated and integrated tug and barge combination, shall be regarded as a single ship for the purpose of this Chapter.
(d)The Director shall determine to what extent the provisions of Regulations 15 to 28 do not apply to the following categories of ships:
(i)ships below 150 tons engaged on any voyage; and
(ii)ships below 500 tons not engaged on international voyages.
Regulation 2Definitions
For the purpose of this Chapter:
(a)Constructed in respect of a ship means a stage of construction where:
(i)the keel is laid; or
(ii)construction identifiable with a specific ship begins; or
(iii)assembly of the ship has commenced comprising at least 50 tonnes or 1% of the estimated mass of all structural material whichever is less.
(b)“Nautical chart” or “nautical publication” is a special-purpose map or book, or a specially compiled database from which such a map or book is derived, that is issued officially by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution and is designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.41
41  Refer to appropriate resolutions and recommendations of the International Hydrographic Organization concerning the authority and responsibilities of coastal States in the provision of charting in accordance with Regulation 9.
(c)All ships means any ship, vessel or craft irrespective of type and purpose.
Regulation 3Exemptions and Equivalents
(a)The Director may grant general exemptions to ships without mechanical means of propulsion from the requirements of Regulations 15, 17, 18, 19 (except 19 (b)(i) (7)), 20, 22 and 24 to 28.
(b)The Director may grant to individual ships exemptions or equivalents of a partial or conditional nature, when any such ship is engaged on a voyage where the maximum distance of the ship from the shore, the length and nature of the voyage, the absence of general navigational hazards, and other conditions affecting safety are such as to render the full application of this Chapter unreasonable or unnecessary, provided that the Director has taken into account the effect such exemptions and equivalents may have upon the safety of all other ships.
Regulation 4Navigational Warnings
Masters and officers of a navigational watch shall monitor NAVTEX, SafetyNET and other relevant navigational safety broadcast for navigational and meteorological warnings and shall act upon them appropriately as and when necessary.
Regulation 5Meteorological Services and Warnings
The Director may require Singapore ships to submit meteorological data and may arrange for selected ships to be equipped with suitable instruments for use in this service.
Regulation 6Ice Patrol Service
(a)The Director may require Singapore ships when navigating in the south-eastern, eastern and south-western limits of icebergs in the vicinity of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland during the ice season to use or provide such service as he may require.
(b)The Director may require the owner of a Singapore ship who makes use of the ice patrol service to contribute annually to the expense of maintaining and operating these services the sum of which shall be determined by the Director.
Regulation 7Search and Rescue Services
Passenger ships to which Chapter I applies shall have on board a plan for co-operation with appropriate search and rescue services in the event of an emergency. The plan shall be developed in co-operation between the ship, the company, as defined in Regulation 1 of Chapter IX and the search and rescue services. The plan shall include provisions for periodic exercises to be undertaken to test its effectiveness. The plan shall be developed based on the guidelines developed by the Organization.
Regulation 8Life-Saving Signals
42Life-saving signals shall be used by life-saving stations, maritime rescue units and aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations when communicating with ships or persons in distress or to direct ships, and by ships or persons in distress when communicating with life-saving stations, maritime rescue units and aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations. An illustrated table describing the life-saving signals shall be readily available to the officers of the watch of every ship to which this Chapter applies.
42  Such life-saving signals are described in the Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR) (Assembly resolution A.299(VII), as amended), the IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR) (Assembly resolution A.439(XI), as amended) and illustrated in the International Code of Signals, as amended.
Regulation 9Hydrographic Services
The Director may provide such nautical and hydrographic services as he deems necessary for the purposes of aiding navigation.
Regulation 10Ships’ Routeing
A ship shall use a mandatory ships’ routeing system adopted by the Organization as required for its category or cargo carried and in accordance with the relevant provisions in force unless there are compelling reasons not to use a particular ships’ routeing system. Any such reason shall be recorded in the ships’ official log book.
Regulation 11Ship Reporting Systems43
43  This regulation does not address ship reporting systems established by Governments for search and rescure purposes which are covert by Chapter 5 of the 1979 SAR Convention as amended
(a)Ship reporting systems contribute to safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of navigation and/or protection of the marine environment. A ship reporting system, when adopted and implemented in accordance with the guidelines and criteria developed by the Organization44 pursuant to this Regulation, shall be used by all ships, or certain categories of ships or ships carrying certain cargoes in accordance with the provisions of each system so adopted.
44  Refer to the guidelines and criteria adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization by resolution MSC.43(64), as amended by resolution MSC.111(73). Refer also to the General principles for ship reporting systems and ship reporting requirements, including guidelines for reporting incidents involving dangerous goods, harmful substances and/or marine pollutants, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.851(20).
(b)The master of a ship shall comply with the requirements of adopted ship reporting systems and report to the appropriate authority all information required in accordance with the provisions of each such system.
(c)The participation of ships in accordance with the provisions of adopted ship reporting systems shall be free of charge to the ships concerned.
Regulation 12Vessel Traffic Services
(a)Vessel traffic services (VTS) contribute to the safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of navigation and the protection of the marine environment, adjacent shore areas, work sites and offshore installations from possible adverse effects of maritime traffic.
(b)The master of a Singapore ship shall participate in and comply with the provisions of VTS, if any, while the ship is in the waters of a Contracting State.
Regulation 13Deck and Engine Log Books
All ships shall carry deck and engine log books in which, or other means by which, the performance of the ship, her machinery, boilers and other daily events including such data as the ship’s position, speed, course, weather conditions, fuel consumption, tank soundings, machinery operating pressures and temperatures and any incidents which may appear to be of importance to safety of life at sea, prevention of pollution to the marine environment, etc., shall be recorded indelibly in English. Such logs when entered by hand shall be signed daily by the officers of the watch and countersigned by the master or chief engineer as appropriate. Such logs or copies thereof shall be made available to the Director as and when required.
Regulation 14Ships’ Manning
(a)All ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned for the purpose of ensuring safety of life at sea and in accordance with the Regulations made under the Act45.
45  Refer to the Principles of Safe Manning adopted by the Organization by resolution A.890(21).
(b)Every ship to which Chapter I applies shall be provided with a safe manning document issued by the Director as evidence of compliance with paragraph (a).
(c)On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a working language shall be established and recorded in the ship’s official log book. The company, as defined in Regulation 1 of Chapter IX, or the master, as appropriate, shall determine the appropriate working language. Each seafarer shall be required to understand and, where appropriate, give orders and instructions and to report back in that language. If the working language is not English, all plans and lists required to be posted shall include a translation into the working language.
(d)On ships to which Chapter I applies, English shall be used on the bridge as the working language for bridge-to-bridge and bridge-to-shore safety communications as well as for communications on board between the pilot and bridge watchkeeping personnel46, unless those directly involved in the communication speak a common language other than English.
46  The IMO Standard Marine Communications Phrases (SMCPs) (MSC/Circ.794), as amended, may be used in this respect.
Regulation 15Principles relating to Bridge Design, Design and Arrangement of Navigational Systems and Equipment and Bridge Procedures
47All decisions which are made for the purpose of applying the requirements of Regulations 19, 22, 24, 25, 27 and 28 and which affect bridge design, the design and arrangement of navigational systems and equipment on the bridge and bridge procedures shall be taken with the aim of:
47  Refer to Guidelines on ergonomic criteria for bridge equipment and layout (MSC/Circ.982). Performance standards for IBS (resolution MSC.64(67); annex 1); and for INS (resolution MSC.86(70); annex 3).
(a)facilitating the tasks to be performed by the bridge team and the pilot in making full appraisal of the situation and in navigating the ship safely under all operational conditions;
(b)promoting effective and safe bridge resource management;
(c)enabling the bridge team and the pilot to have convenient and continuous access to essential information which is presented in a clear and unambiguous manner, using standardized symbols and coding systems for controls and displays;
(d)indicating the operational status of automated functions and integrated components, systems and/or sub-systems;
(e)allowing for expeditious, continuous and effective information processing and decision-making by the bridge team and the pilot;
(f)preventing or minimizing excessive or unnecessary work and any conditions or distractions on the bridge which may cause fatigue or interfere with the vigilance of the bridge team and the pilot; and
(g)minimizing the risk of human error and detecting such error if it occurs, through monitoring and alarm systems, in time for the bridge team and the pilot to take appropriate action.
Regulation 16Maintenance of Equipment
(a)Instructions for on board maintenance of the equipment required by this Chapter shall be provided and maintenance shall be carried out accordingly.
(b)Except as provided in Regulation 7(b)(ii), Regulations 8 and 9 of Chapter I, while all reasonable steps shall be taken to maintain the equipment required by this Chapter in efficient working order, malfunctions of that equipment shall not be considered as making the ship unseaworthy or as a reason for delaying the ship in ports where repair facilities are not readily available, provided suitable arrangements are made by the master to take the inoperative equipment or unavailable information into account in planning and executing a safe voyage to a port where repairs can take place.
Regulation 17Electromagnetic Compatibility
(a)All electrical and electronic equipment installed on the bridge or in the vicinity of the bridge, on ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002, shall be tested for electromagnetic compatibility taking into account the recommendations developed by the Organization.48
48  Refer to the General requirements for Electromagnetic Compatibility for all Electrical and Electronic Ship’s Equipment adopted by the Organization by resolution A.813(19).
(b)Electrical and electronic equipment shall be so installed that electromagnetic interference does not affect the proper function of navigational systems and equipment.
(c)Portable electrical and electronic equipment shall not be operated on the bridge if it may affect the proper function of navigational systems and equipment.
Regulation 18Approval, Surveys and Performance Standards of Navigational Systems and Equipment and Voyage Data Recorder
(a)Systems and equipment required to meet the requirements of Regulations 19 and 20 shall be approved by the Director.
(b)Systems and equipment, including associated back-up arrangements, where applicable, installed on or after 1st July 2002 to perform the functional requirements of Regulations 19 and 20 shall conform to appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.49
49  Refer to the following recommendations adopted by the Organization by the resolutions indicated:
Recommedations on general requirements for shipborned radio equipment forming part of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and for Electronic Navigational Aids (resolution A.694(17));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for gyro-compasses (resolution A.424(XI));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for radar equipment (resolution MSC.64(67), annex 4);
Performance Standards for automatic radar plotting aids (resolution A.823(19));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) (resolution A.817(19)), as amended by resolutions MSC.64(67), annex 5 and MSC.86(70), annex 4, as appropriate;
Recommendation on accuracy standards for navigation (resolution A.529(13));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for shipborne Loran-C and Chayka receivers (resolution A.818(19));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for shipborne global positioning system receiver equipment (resolution A.819(19)) as amended by resolution MSC.112 (73);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for shipborne GLONASS receiver equipment (resolution MSC.53(66)) as amended by resolution MSC.113(73);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for shipborne DGPS and DGLONASS maritime radio beacon receiver equipment (resolution MSC.64(67), annex 2) as amended by resolution MSC.114(73);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for combined GPS/GLONASS receiver equipment (resolution MSC.74(69), annex 1) as amended by resolution MSC.115(73);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for heading control systems (resolution MSC.64(67), annex 3);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for track control systems (resolution MSC.74(69), annex 2);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for a universal shipborne automatic identification system (AIS) (resolution MSC.74(69), annex 3);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for echo-sounding equipment (resolution A.224(VII), as amended by resolution MSC.74(69), annex 4);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for devices to indicate speed and distance (resolution A.824(19)), as amended by resolution MSC.96(72);
Performance Standards for rate-of-turn indicators (resolution A.526(13));
Recommendation on unification of Performance Standards for navigational equipment (resolution A.575(14));
Recommendation on methods of measuring noise levels at listening posts (resolution A.343(IX));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for radar reflectors (resolution A.384(X));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for magnetic compasses (resolution A.382(X));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for daylight signalling lamps (resolution MSC.95(72));
Recommendation on Performance Standards for sound reception systems (resolution MSC.86(70), annex 1);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for marine transmitting magnetic heading devices (TMHDs) (resolution MSC.86(70), annex 2);
Recommendation on Performance Standards for voyage data recorders (VDRs) (resolution A.861(20));
Recommendations on Performance Standards for marine transmitting heading devices (THDs) (resolution MSC.116(73)).
(c)When systems and equipment are replaced or added to on ships constructed before 1st July 2002, such systems and equipment shall, in so far as is reasonable and practicable, comply with the requirements of paragraph (b).
(d)Systems and equipment installed prior to the adoption of performance standards by the Organization may subsequently be exempted from full compliance with such standards at the discretion of the Director, having due regard to the recommended criteria adopted by the Organization. However, for an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) to be accepted as satisfying the chart carriage requirement of Regulation 19(b)(i)(4), that system shall conform to the relevant performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization in effect on the date of installation, or, for systems installed before 1st January 1999, not inferior to the performance standards adopted by the Organization by Assembly Resolution A.817 (19) on 23rd November 1995.
(e)The Director will require that manufacturers have a quality control system audited by a competent authority to ensure continuous compliance with the type approval conditions. Alternatively, the Director may use final product verification procedures where the compliance with the type approval certificate is verified by a competent authority before the product is installed on board ships.
(f)Before giving approval to systems or equipment embodying new features not covered by this Chapter, the Director will require that such features support functions at least as effective as those required by this Chapter.
(g)When equipment, for which performance standards have been developed by the Organization, is carried on ships in addition to those items of equipment required by Regulations 19 and 20, such equipment shall be subject to approval and shall as far as practicable comply with performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.
(h)The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility to verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data. In addition, tests and inspections shall be conducted to determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship.
Regulation 19Carriage Requirements for Shipborne Navigational Systems and Equipment
Application and requirements
(a)Subject to the provisions of Regulation 1(d):
(i)Ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002 shall be fitted with navigational systems and equipment which will fulfil the requirements prescribed in paragraphs (b)(i) to (b)(ix).
(ii)Ships constructed before 1st July 2002 shall:
(1)subject to the provisions of paragraphs (a)(ii) (2) and (a)(ii) (3), unless they comply fully with this Regulation, continue to be fitted with equipment which fulfils the requirements prescribed in Regulations 11, 12 and 20 of the of Chapter V of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Regulations in force prior to 1st July 2002;
(2)be fitted with the equipment or systems required in paragraph (b)(i) (6) not later than the first survey after 1st July 2002 at which time the radio direction-finding apparatus referred to in Regulation 12(p) of Chapter V of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Regulations in force prior to 1st July 2002 shall no longer be required; and
(3)be fitted with the system required in paragraph (b)(iv) not later than the dates specified in paragraphs (b)(iv) (2) and (b)(iv) (3).
Shipborne navigational equipment and systems
(b)
(i)All ships irrespective of size shall have:
(1)a properly adjusted standard magnetic compass, or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position;
(2)a pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°;
(3)means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times;
(4)nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage; an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) may be accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements of this sub-paragraph;
(5)back-up arrangements to meet the functional requirements of sub-paragraph (4), if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means;50
50  An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS. Other back-up arrangements for ECDIS are acceptable (see appendix 6 to resolution A.817(19), as amended).
(6)a receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigation system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means;
(7)if less than 150 tons and if practicable, a radar reflector, or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHz;
(8)when the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Director determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction;
(9)a telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided.
(ii)All ships of 150 tons and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition to the requirements of paragraph (b)(i), be fitted with:
(1)a spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, as referred to in paragraph (b)(i) (1), or other means to perform the function referred to in paragraph (b)(i) (1) by means of replacement or duplicate equipment;
(2)a daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply.
(iii)All ships of 300 tons and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(ii), be fitted with:
(1)an echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water;
(2)a 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance;
(3)an electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk;
(4)speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water;
(5)a properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to the equipment referred to in paragraphs (b)(iii) (2), (b)(iii) (3) and (b)(iv).
(iv)All ships of 300 tons and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 tons and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification system (AIS), as follows:
(1)ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002;
(2)ships engaged on international voyages constructed before 1st July 2002:
(A)in the case of passenger ships, not later than 1st July 2003;
(B)in the case of tankers, not later than the first survey for safety equipment51 on or after 1st July 2003;
51  Refer to Regulation I/8.
(C)in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 50,000 tons and upwards, not later than 1st July 2004;
(D)in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 10,000 tons and upwards but less than 50,000 tons, not later than 1st July 2005;
(E)in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 3,000 tons and upwards but less than 10,000 tons, not later than 1st July 2006;
(F)in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 300 tons and upwards but less than 3,000 tons, not later than 1st July 2007; and
(3)ships not engaged on international voyages constructed before 1st July 2002, not later than 1st July 2008;
(4)the Director may exempt ships from the application of the requirements of this paragraph when such ships will be taken permanently out of service within two years after the implementation date specified in sub-paragraphs (2) and (3);
(5)AIS shall:
(A)provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information;
(B)receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
(C)monitor and track ships; and
(D)exchange data with shore-based facilities;
(6)the requirements of paragraph (b)(iv) (5) shall not be applied to cases where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information; and
(7)AIS shall be operated taking into account the guidelines adopted by the Organization.52
52  Refer to the Guidelines on the operation of AIS on ships to be developed by the Organization.
(v)All ships of 500 tons and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(iii) with the exception of paragraphs (b)(iii) (3) and (b)(iii) (5), and the requirements of paragraph (b)(iv), have:
(1)a gyro-compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means and to transmit heading information for input to the equipment referred in paragraphs (b)(iii) (2), (b)(iv) and (b)(v) (5);
(2)a gyro-compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided;
(3)a gyro-compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro-compass or other means referred to in sub-paragraph (1). However ships less than 1,600 tons shall be fitted with such means as far as possible;
(4)rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position; and
(5)an automatic tracking aid, or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk.
(vi)On all ships of 500 tons and upwards, failure of one piece of equipment should not reduce the ship’s ability to meet the requirements of paragraphs (b)(i) (1), (b)(i) (2) and (b)(i) (4).
(vii)All ships of 3,000 tons and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(v), have:
(1)a 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Director a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance, which are functionally independent of those referred to in paragraph (b)(iii) (2); and
(2)a second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk which are functionally independent of those referred to in paragraph (b)(v) (5).
(viii)All ships of 10,000 tons and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(vii) with the exception of paragraph (b)(vii) (2), have:
(1)an automatic radar plotting aid, or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre; and
(2)a heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track.
(ix)All ships of 50,000 tons and upwards shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(viii), have:
(1)a rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn; and
(2)a speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction.
(c)When “other means” are permitted under this Regulation, such means must be approved by the Director in accordance with Regulation 18.
(d)The navigational equipment and systems referred to in this Regulation shall be so installed, tested and maintained as to minimize malfunction.
(e)Navigational equipment and systems offering alternative modes of operation shall indicate the actual mode of use.
(f)Integrated bridge systems53 shall be so arranged that failure of one sub-system is brought to immediate attention of the officer in charge of the navigational watch by audible and visual alarms, and does not cause failure to any other sub-system. In case of failure in one part of an integrated navigational system,54 it shall be possible to operate each other individual item of equipment or part of the system separately.
53  Refer to resolution MSC.64(67), annex 1 — Performance standard for Integrated bridge systems.
54  Refer to resolution MSC.86(70), annex 3 — Performance standard for Integrated navigational systems.
Regulation 20Voyage Data Recorders
(a)To assist in casualty investigations, ships, when engaged on international voyages, subject to the provisions of Regulation 1(d), shall be fitted with a voyage data recorder (VDR) as follows:
(i)passenger ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002;
(ii)ro-ro passenger ships constructed before 1st July 2002 not later than the first survey on or after 1st July 2002;
(iii)passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships constructed before 1st July 2002 not later than 1st January 2004; and
(iv)ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 tons and upwards constructed on or after 1st July 2002.
(b)The Director may exempt ships, other than ro-ro passenger ships, constructed before 1st July 2002 from being fitted with a VDR where it can be demonstrated that interfacing a VDR with the existing equipment on the ship is unreasonable and impracticable.
Regulation 21International Code of Signals
All ships which, in accordance with the present Convention, are required to carry a radio installation shall carry the International Code of Signals as may be amended by the Organization. The Code shall also be carried by any other ship which, in the opinion of the Director, has a need to use it.
Regulation 22Navigational Bridge Visibility
(a)Ships of not less than 45 m in length as defined in Regulation 3 of Chapter III, constructed on or after 1st July 1998, shall meet the following requirements:
(i)The view of the sea surface from the conning position shall not be obscured by more than two ship lengths, or 500 m, whichever is the less, forward of the bow to 10° on either side under all conditions of draught, trim and deck cargo;
(ii)No blind sector caused by cargo, cargo gear or other obstructions outside of the wheelhouse forward of the beam which obstructs the view of the sea surface as seen from the conning position, shall exceed 10°. The total arc of blind sectors shall not exceed 20°. The clear sectors between blind sectors shall be at least 5°. However, in the view described in (i), each individual blind sector shall not exceed 5°;
(iii)The horizontal field of vision from the conning position shall extend over an arc of not less than 225°, that is from right ahead to not less than 22.5°, abaft the beam on either side of the ship;
(iv)From each bridge wing the horizontal field of vision shall extend over an arc at least 225°, that is from at least 45° on the opposite bow through right ahead and then from right ahead to right astern through 180° on the same side of the ship;
(v)From the main steering position the horizontal field of vision shall extend over an arc from right ahead to at least 60° on each side of the ship;
(vi)The ship’s side shall be visible from the bridge wing;
(vii)The height of the lower edge of the navigation bridge front windows above the bridge deck shall be kept as low as possible. In no case shall the lower edge present an obstruction to the forward view as described in this Regulation;
(viii)The upper edge of the navigation bridge front windows shall allow a forward view of the horizon, for a person with a height of eye of 1,800 mm above the bridge deck at the conning position, when the ship is pitching in heavy seas. The Director, if satisfied that a 1,800 mm height of eye is unreasonable and impractical, may allow reduction of the height of eye but not less than 1,600 mm;
(ix)Windows shall meet the following requirements:
(1)To help avoid reflections, the bridge front windows shall be inclined from the vertical plane top out, at an angle of not less than 10° and not more than 25°.
(2)Framing between navigation bridge windows shall be kept to a minimum and not be installed immediately forward of any work station.
(3)Polarized and tinted windows shall not be fitted.
(4)A clear view through at least two of the navigation bridge front windows and, depending on the bridge configuration, an additional number of clear-view windows shall be provided at all times, regardless of weather conditions.
(b)Ships constructed before 1st July 1998 shall, where practicable, meet the requirements of paragraphs (a)(i) and (a)(ii). However, structural alterations or additional equipment need not be required.
(c)On ships of unconventional design which, in the opinion of the Director, cannot comply with this Regulation, arrangements shall be provided to achieve a level of visibility that is as near as practical to that prescribed in this Regulation.
Regulation 23Pilot Transfer Arrangements
Application
(a)
(i)Ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots are likely to be employed shall be provided with pilot transfer arrangements.
(ii)Equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are installed on or after 1st January 1994 shall comply with the requirements of this Regulation, and due regard shall be paid to the standards adopted by the Organization.55
55  Refer to the Recommendation on Pilot transfer arrangements, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.889(21), MSC/Circ.568/Rev.1: Required Boarding Arrangement for Pilots.
(iii)Equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are provided on ships before 1st January 1994 shall at least comply with the requirements of Regulation 17 of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Regulations in force prior to that date, and due regard shall be paid to the standards adopted by the Organization prior to that date.
(iv)Equipment and arrangements which are replaced after 1st January 1994 shall, in so far as is reasonable and practicable, comply with the requirements of this Regulation.
General
(b)
(i)All arrangements used for pilot transfer shall efficiently fulfill their purpose of enabling pilots to embark and disembark safely. The appliances shall be kept clean, properly maintained and stowed and shall be regularly inspected to ensure that they are safe to use. They shall be used solely for the embarkation and disembarkation of personnel.
(ii)The rigging of the pilot transfer arrangements and the embarkation of a pilot shall be supervised by a responsible officer having means of communication with the navigation bridge who shall also arrange for the escort of the pilot by a safe route to and from the navigation bridge. Personnel engaged in rigging and operating any mechanical equipment shall be instructed in the safe procedures to be adopted and the equipment shall be tested prior to use.
Transfer arrangements
(c)
(i)Arrangements shall be provided to enable the pilot to embark and disembark safely on either side of the ship.
(ii)In all ships where the distance from sea level to the point of access to, or egress from, the ship exceeds 9 m, and when it is intended to embark and disembark pilots by means of the accommodation ladder, or by means of mechanical pilot hoists or other equally safe and convenient means in conjunction with a pilot ladder, the ship shall carry such equipment on each side, unless the equipment is capable of being transferred for use on either side.
(iii)Safe and convenient access to, and egress from, the ship shall be provided by either:
(1)a pilot ladder requiring a climb of not less than 1.5 m and not more than 9 m above the surface of the water so positioned and secured that:
(A)it is clear of any possible discharges from the ship;
(B)it is within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length of the ship;
(C)each step rests firmly against the ship’s side; where constructional features, such as rubbing bands, would prevent the implementation of this provision, special arrangements shall, to the satisfaction of the Director, be made to ensure that persons are able to embark and disembark safely;
(D)the single length of pilot ladder is capable of reaching the water from the point of access to, or egress from, the ship and due allowance is made for all conditions of loading and trim of the ship, and for an adverse list of 15°; the securing strong point, shackles and securing ropes shall be at least as strong as the side ropes;
(2)an accommodation ladder in conjunction with the pilot ladder, or other equally safe and convenient means, whenever the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m. The accommodation ladder shall be sited leading aft. When in use, the lower end of the accommodation ladder shall rest firmly against the ship’s side within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length and clear of all discharges; or
(3)a mechanical pilot hoist so located that it is within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length of the ship and clear of all discharges.
Access to the ship’s deck
(d)Means shall be provided to ensure safe, convenient and unobstructed passage for any person embarking on, or disembarking from, the ship between the head of the pilot ladder, or of any accommodation ladder or other appliance, and the ship’s deck. Where such passage is by means of:
(i)a gateway in the rails or bulwark, adequate handholds shall be provided;
(ii)a bulwark ladder, two handhold stanchions rigidly secures to the ship’s structure at or near their bases and at higher points shall be fitted. The bulwark ladder shall be securely attached to the ship to prevent overturning.
Shipside doors
(e)Shipside doors used for pilot transfer shall not open outwards.
Mechanical pilot hoists
(f)
(i)The mechanical pilot hoist and its ancillary equipment shall be of a type approved by the Director. The pilot hoist shall be designed to operate as a moving ladder to lift and lower one person on the side of the ship, or as a platform to lift and lower one or more persons on the side of the ship. It shall be of such design and construction as to ensure that the pilot can be embarked and disembarked in a safe manner, including a safe access from the hoist to the deck and vice versa. Such access shall be gained directly by a platform securely guarded by handrails.
(ii)Efficient hand gear shall be provided to lower or recover the person or persons carried, and kept ready for use in the event of power failure.
(iii)The hoist shall be securely attached to the structure of the ship. Attachment shall not be solely by means of the ship’s side rails. Proper and strong attachment points shall be provided for hoists of the portable type on each side of the ship.
(iv)If belting is fitted in the way of the hoist position, such belting shall be cut back sufficiently to allow the hoist to operate against the ship’s side.
(v)A pilot ladder shall be rigged adjacent to the hoist and available for immediate use so that access to it is available from the hoist at any point of its travel. The pilot ladder shall be capable of reaching the sea level from its own point of access to the ship.
(vi)The position on the ship’s side where the hoist will be lowered shall be indicated.
(vii)An adequate protected stowage position shall be provided for the portable hoist. In very cold weather, to avoid the danger of ice formation, the portable hoist shall not be rigged until its use is imminent.
Associated equipment
(g)
(i)The following associated equipment shall be kept at hand ready for immediate use when persons are being transferred:
(1)two man-ropes of not less than 28 mm in diameter properly secured to the ship if required by the pilot;
(2)a lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light;
(3)a heaving line.
(ii)When required by paragraph (d), stanchions and bulwark ladders shall be provided.
Lighting
(h)Adequate lighting shall be provided to illuminate the transfer arrangements overside, the position on deck where a person embarks or disembarks and the controls of the mechanical pilot hoist.
Regulation 24Use of Heading and/or Track Control Systems
(a)In areas of high traffic density, in conditions of restricted visibility and in all other hazardous navigational situations where heading and/or track control systems are in use, it shall be possible to establish manual control of the ship’s steering immediately.
(b)In circumstances as above, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall have available without delay the services of a qualified helmsperson who shall be ready at all times to take over steering control.
(c)The change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice versa shall be made by or under the supervision of a responsible officer.
(d)The manual steering shall be tested after prolonged use of heading and/or track control systems, and before entering areas where navigation demands special caution.
Regulation 25Operation of Main Source of Electrical Power and Steering Gear
In areas where navigation demands special caution, ships shall have more than one steering gear power unit in operation when such units are capable of simultaneous operation.
Regulation 26Steering Gear: Testing and Drills
(a)Within 12 hours before departure, the ship’s steering gear shall be checked and tested by the ship’s crew. The test procedure shall include, where applicable, the operation of the following:
(i)the main steering gear;
(ii)the auxiliary steering gear;
(iii)the remote steering gear control systems;
(iv)the steering positions located on the navigation bridge;
(v)the emergency power supply;
(vi)the rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder;
(vii)the remote steering gear control system power failure alarms;
(viii)the steering gear power unit failure alarms; and
(ix)automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment.
(b)The checks and tests shall include:
(i)the full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear;
(ii)a visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage; and
(iii)the operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear compartment.
(c)(i) Simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems and steering gear power units shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering compartment.
(c)(ii) All ships’ officers concerned with the operation and/or maintenance of steering gear shall be familiar with the operation of the steering systems fitted on the ship and with the procedures for changing from one system to another.
(d)In addition to the routine checks and tests prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b), emergency steering drills shall take place at least once every three months in order to practise emergency steering procedures. These drills shall include direct control within the steering gear compartment, the communications procedure with the navigation bridge and, where applicable the operation of alternative power supplies.
(e)The Director may waive the requirements to carry out the checks and tests prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) for ships which regularly engage on voyages of short duration. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once every week.
(f)The date upon which the checks and tests prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) are carried out and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried out under paragraph (d), shall be recorded.
Regulation 27Nautical Charts and Nautical Publications
Nautical charts and nautical publications, such as sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to mariners, tide tables and all other nautical publications necessary for the intended voyage, shall be adequate and up to date.
Regulation 28Records of Navigational Activities
56All ships engaged on international voyages shall keep on board a record of navigational activities and incidents which are of importance to safety of navigation and which must contain sufficient detail to restore a complete record of the voyage, taking into account the recommendations adopted by the Organization. When such information is not maintained in the ship’s official log book, it shall be maintained in another form approved by the Director.
56  Refer to the Guidelines for recording events related to navigation to be developed by the Organization.
Regulation 29Life-Saving Signals to be used by Ships, Aircraft or Persons in Distress
57An illustrated table describing the life-saving signals shall be readily available to the officer of the watch of every ship to which this Chapter applies. The signals shall be used by ships or persons in distress when communicating with life-saving stations, maritime rescue units and aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations.
57  Such life-saving signals are described in the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual (IAMSAR) Vol.III, Mobile Facilities and illustrated in the International Code of Signals, as amended pursuant to resolution A.80(IV).
Regulation 30Operational Limitations
(a)This Regulation applies to all passenger ships to which Chapter I applies.
(b)A list of all limitations on the operation of a passenger ship including exemptions from any of these Regulations, restrictions in operating areas, weather restrictions, sea state restrictions, restrictions in permissible loads, trim, speed and any other limitations, whether imposed by the Director or established during the design or the building stages, shall be compiled before the passenger ship is put in service. The list, together with any necessary explanations, shall be documented in a form acceptable to the Director, which shall be kept on board readily available to the master. The list shall be kept updated. If the language used is not English, the list shall be provided in English.
Regulation 31Danger Messages
(a)The master of every ship which meets with dangerous ice, a dangerous derelict, or any other direct danger to navigation, or a tropical storm, or encounters sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on superstructures, or winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been received, is bound to communicate the information by all means at his disposal to ships in the vicinity, and also to the competent authorities. The form in which the information is sent is not obligatory. It may be transmitted either in plain language (preferably English) or by means of the International Code of Signals.
(b)All radio messages issued under paragraph (a) shall be preceded by the safety signal, using the procedure as prescribed by the Radio Regulations as defined in Regulation 2 of Chapter IV.
Regulation 32Information required in danger messages
The following information is required in danger messages:
Ice, derelicts and other direct dangers to navigation
(a)
(i)The kind of ice, derelict or danger observed.
(ii)The position of the ice, derelict or danger when last observed.
(iii)The time and date (Universal Co-ordinated Time) when danger last observed.
Tropical cyclones (storms)58
58  The term tropical cyclone is the generic term used by national meteorological services of the World Meteorological Organization. The term hurricane, typhoon, cyclone, severe tropical storm, etc., may also be used, depending on the geographical location
(b)
(i)A statement that a tropical cyclone has been encountered. This obligation should be interpreted in a broad spirit, and information transmitted whenever the master has good reason to believe that a tropical cyclone is developing or exists in the neighbourhood.
(ii)Time, date (Universal Co-ordinated Time) and position of ship when the observation was taken.
(iii)As much of the following information as is practicable should be included in the message:
—  –barometric pressure59, preferably corrected (stating millibars, millimetres, or inches, and whether corrected or uncorrected);
59  The standard international unit for barometric pressure is the hectopascal (hPa) which is numerically equivalent to the millibar (mbar).
—  –barometric tendency (the change in barometric pressure during the past three hours);
—  –true wind direction;
—  –wind force (Beaufort scale);
—  –state of the sea (smooth, moderate, rough, high);
—  –swell (slight, moderate, heavy) and the true direction from which it comes. Period or length of swell (short, average, long) would also be of value;
—  –true course and speed of ship.
Subsequent observations
(c)When a master has reported a tropical cyclone or other dangerous storm, it is desirable but not obligatory, that further observations be made and transmitted hourly, if practicable, but in any case at intervals of not more than 3 hours, so long as the ship remains under the influence of the storm.
Winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been received
(d)This is intended to deal with storms other than the tropical cyclones referred to in paragraph (b); when such a storm is encountered, the message should contain similar information to that listed under the paragraph but excluding the details concerning sea and swell.
Sub-freezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on superstructures
(e)
(i)Time and date (Universal Co-ordinated Time).
(ii)Air temperature.
(iii)Sea temperature (if practicable).
(iv)Wind force and direction.
 
Examples
 
Ice
 
TTT ICE. LARGE BERG SIGHTED IN 4506 N, 4410W, AT 0800 UTC. MAY 15.
 
Derelicts
 
TTT DERELICT. OBSERVED DERELICT ALMOST SUBMERGED IN 4006 N, 1243 W, AT 1630 UTC. APRIL 21.
 
Danger to navigation
 
TTT NAVIGATION. ALPHA LIGHTSHIP NOT ON STATION. 1800 UTC. JANUARY 3.
 
Tropical cyclone
 
TTT STORM. 0030 UTC. AUGUST 18. 2004 N, 11354 E. BAROMETER CORRECTED 994 MILLIBARS, TENDENCY DOWN 6 MILLIBARS. WIND NW, FORCE 9, HEAVY SQUALLS. HEAVY EASTERLY SWELL. COURSE 067, 5 KNOTS.
 
TTT STORM. APPEARANCES INDICATE APPROACH OF HURRICANE. 1300 UTC. SEPTEMBER 14. 2200 N, 7236 W. BAROMETER CORRECTED 29.64 INCHES, TENDENCY DOWN .015 INCHES. WIND NE, FORCE 8, FREQUENT RAIN SQUALLS. COURSE 035, 9 KNOTS.
 
TTT STORM. CONDITIONS INDICATE INTENSE CYCLONE HAS FORMED. 0200 UTC. MAY 4. 1620 N, 9203 E. BAROMETER UNCORRECTED 753 MILLIMETRES, TENDENCY DOWN 5 MILLIMETRES. WIND S BY W, FORCE 5. COURSE 300, 8 KNOTS.
 
TTT STORM. TYPHOON TO SOUTHEAST. 0300 UTC. JUNE 12. 1812 N, 12605 E. BAROMETER FALLING RAPIDLY. WIND INCREASING FROM N.
 
TTT STORM. WIND FORCE 11, NO STORM WARNING RECEIVED. 0300 UTC. MAY 4. 4830 N, 30 W. BAROMETER CORRECTED 983 MILLIBARS, TENDENCY DOWN 4 MILLIBARS. WIND SW, FORCE 11 VEERING. COURSE 260, 6 KNOTS.
 
Icing
 
TTT EXPERIENCING SEVERE ICING. 1400 UTC. MARCH 2. 69 N, 10 W. AIR TEMPERATURE 18°F (-7.8°C). SEA TEMPERATURE 29°F (-1.7°C). WIND NE, FORCE 8.
Regulation 33Distress Messages: Obligations and Procedures
(a)The master of a ship at sea which is in a position to be able to provide assistance on receiving a signal from any source that persons are in distress at sea, is bound to proceed with all speed to their assistance, if possible informing them or the search and rescue service that the ship is doing so. If the ship receiving the distress alert is unable or, in the special circumstances of the case, considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed to their assistance, the master must enter in the official log book the reason for failing to proceed to the assistance of the persons in distress, taking into account the recommendation of the Organization60 , to inform the appropriate search and rescue service accordingly.
60  Refer to the immediate action to be taken by each ship on receipt of a distress message in the MERSAR Manual, as it may be amended.
(b)The master of a ship in distress or the search and rescue service concerned, after consultation, so far as may be possible, with the masters of ships which answer the distress alert, has the right to requisition one or more of those ships as the master of the ship in distress or the search and rescue service considers best able to render assistance, and it shall be the duty of the master or masters of the ship or ships requisitioned to comply with the requisition by continuing to proceed with all speed to the assistance of persons in distress.
(c)Masters of ships shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph (a) on learning that their ships have not been requisitioned and that one or more other ships have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition. This decision shall, if possible be communicated to the other requisitioned ships and to the search and rescue service.
(d)The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph (a) and, if his ship has been requisitioned, from the obligation imposed by paragraph (b) on being informed by the persons in distress or by the search and rescue service or by the master of another ship which has reached such persons that assistance is no longer necessary.
(e)The provisions of this Regulation do not prejudice the Convention for the unification of certain rules of law relating to Assistance and Salvage at Sea, signed at Brussels on 23rd September 1910, particularly the obligation to render assistance imposed by article 11 of that Convention.61
61  International Convention on Salvage 1989 done at London on 28th April 1989 entered into force on 14th July 1996.
Regulation 34Safe Navigation and Avoidance of Dangerous Situations
(a)Prior to proceeding to sea, the master shall ensure that the intended voyage has been planned using the appropriate nautical charts and nautical publications for the area concerned, taking into account the guidelines and recommendations developed by the Organization62.
62  Refer to the Guidelines for Voyage Planning, adopted by the Organization by resolution A.893(21)
(b)The voyage plan shall identify a route which:
(i)takes into account any relevant ships’ routeing systems;
(ii)ensures sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the ship throughout the voyage;
(iii)anticipates all known navigational hazards and adverse weather conditions; and
(iv)takes into account the marine environmental protection measures that apply, and avoids as far as possible actions and activities which could cause damage to the environment.
(c)The owner, the charterer, or the company, as defined in Regulation 1 of Chapter IX, operating the ship or any other person, shall not prevent or restrict the master of the ship from taking or executing any decision which, in the master’s professional judgement, is necessary for safe navigation and protection of the marine environment.
Regulation 35Misuse of Distress Signals
The use of an international distress signal, except for the purpose of indicating that a person or persons are in distress, and the use of any signal which may be confused with an international distress signal, are prohibited.
Regulation 36Basic Principles to be Observed in Keeping Navigational and Engineering Watches
All ships shall maintain navigational and engineering watches. Masters, chief engineers and watchkeeping personnel shall observe the basic principles in watchkeeping outlined in Chapter VIII of the Regulations annexed to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended on 7th July 1995 and any amendment thereto which has come into force and has been accepted by the Government.”.
Amendment of Regulation 5 of Chapter VI
13.  Regulation 5 of Chapter VI of the principal Regulations is amended by deleting paragraph (f) and substituting the following paragraph:
(f)All cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes, shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual approved by the Director or authorised organization. In ships with ro-ro cargo spaces, as defined in Regulation 3(oo) of Chapter II-2, all securing of such cargoes, in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual, shall be completed before the ship leaves berth. The Cargo Securing Manual shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent to relevant guidelines developed by the Organization63.”.
63  Refer to the Guidelines on the preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization and promulgated by circular MSC/Circ.745.
Amendment of Regulation 5 of Chapter VII
14.  Regulation 5 of Chapter VII of the principal Regulations is amended by deleting paragraph (f) and by re-lettering paragraph (g) as (f)
Amendment of Regulation 6 of Chapter VII
15.  Regulation 6 of Chapter VII of the principal Regulations is amended —
(a)by deleting the heading and substituting the following heading:
Stowage and Securing”.
(b)by inserting, immediately after paragraph (e), the following paragraph:
(f)All cargoes, other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes, shall be loaded, stowed and secured throughout the voyage in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual approved by the Director or authorised organisation. In ships with ro-ro cargo spaces, as defined in Regulation 3(oo) of Chapter II-2, all securing of such cargoes, in accordance with the Cargo Securing Manual, shall be completd before the ship leaves berth. The Cargo Securing Manual shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent to relevant guidelines developed by the Organization64”.
64  Refer to the Guidelines on the preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual, approved by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization and promulgated by circular MSC/Circ. 745.
Amendment of Regulation 3 of Chapter IX
16.  Regulation 3 of Chapter IX of the principal Regulations is amended by inserting, immediately after the words “Management Code.”, in paragraph (a), the words “For the purpose of this Regulation, the requirements of the Code shall be treatd as mandatory.”.
Amendment of Regulation 6 of Chapter IX
17.  Regulation 6 of Chapter IX of the principal Regulations is amended —
(a)by deleting the words “Subject to the provisions of paragraph (c), a” in the 1st line of paragraph (b) and substituting the word “A”; and
(b)by deleting paragraph (c).
Amendment of Regulation 1 of Chapter X
18.  Regulation 1 of Chapter X of the principal Regulations is amended —
314 of 2002.jpg
(b)by deleting the words “High Speed Craft Code (HSC Code)” in the 1st line of the definition of “High Speed Craft Code (HSC Code)” and substituting the words “High-Speed Craft Code, 1994 (1994 HSC Code)”;
(c)by inserting, immediately after the definition of “High-Speed Craft Code (HSC Code)”, the following definition:
“ “High-Speed Craft Code, 2000 (2000 HSC Code)” means the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, 2000 adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization by resolution MSC.97 (73), as may be amended by the Organization, provided that such amendments are adopted, brought into force and take effect in accordance with the provisions of article VIII of the present Convention concerning the amendment procedures applicable to the Annex other than Chapter I.”.
(d)by deleting “1%” in paragraph (b) in the definition of “Similar stage of construction” and substituting “3%”.
Amendment of Regulation 2 of Chapter X
19.  Regulation 2 of Chapter X of the principal Regulations is amended by deleting the words “1st January 1996” in the 5th and in the penultimate lines of paragraph (b) and substituting in each case the words “1st July 2002”.
Amendment of Regulation 3 of Chapter X
20.  Regulation 3 of Chapter X of the principal Regulations is amended by deleting paragraph (a) and substituting the following paragraph:
(a)Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapters I to IV and Regulations 18, 19 and 20 of Chapter V:
(i)a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1st January 1996 but before 1st July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 1994 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of Chapters I to IV and Regulations 18, 19 and 20 of Chapter V. For the purpose of this Regulation, the requirements of that Code shall be treated as mandatory.
(ii)a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1st July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 2000 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of Chapters I to IV and Regulations 18, 19 and 20 of Chapter V.”.
Amendment of Second Schedule
21.  The Second Schedule to the Principal Regulations is amended —
(a)by inserting, immediately after item 4 of the Record of Equipment for the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate (Form P), the following item:
“ UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN”.
(b)by inserting, immediately after item 2 of the Record of Equipment for the Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate (Form E), the following item:
“ UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN
UNKNOWN”.
Made this 26th day of June 2002.
PETER HO HAK EAN
Chairman,
Maritime and Port Authority of
Singapore.
[SS 1.2.1 (16); AG/LEG/SL/179/2002/1 Vol. 1]